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Wendy S. Klooster, Bert M. Cregg, R. Thomas Fernandez and Pascal Nzokou

( NASS, 2007 ). Pot-in-pot (PIP) production is an increasingly popular component of the overall container production trend. Because PIP plants are grown in containers, they are lightweight, easy to harvest, and root systems are not disturbed by digging

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Genhua Niu, Susmitha S. Nambuthiri, Robert L. Geneve, Xueni Wang, R. Thomas Fernandez, Youping Sun and Xiaojie Zhao

Irrigation lowers substrate temperature and enhances survival of plants on green roofs in the southeastern United States HortTechnology 21 586 592 Ruter, J.M. 1993 Growth and landscape performance of three landscape plants produced in conventional and pot-in-pot

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Bruk E. Belayneh, John D. Lea-Cox and Erik Lichtenberg

technology in a commercial pot-in-pot nursery production environment and 2) to provide a basic cost–benefit analysis for the sensor network installed in this nursery. Specifically, we tested the reliability and precision of a new control node (nR5; Decagon

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Julián Miralles, Raquel Valdes, Juan J. Martínez-Sánchez and Sebastián Bañón

pots in pots already buried in the ground. The buried pots were made of black polyvinyl chloride with a grilled bottom to ensure drainage (5.5 L, 17 cm upper exterior diameter and 30 cm height). An air chamber of 15 cm separated the bases of both pots

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John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Prunus × incamp `Okame' to evaluate the effects of a pot-in-pot production system compared to a conventional above-ground system and cyclic irrigation on plant growth and water loss. Plants were grown in #7 (26-L) containers with a 8:1 pinebark:sand (v/v) substrate. Cyclic irrigation provided the same total volume of water, but was applied one, three, or four times per day. Final plant height and stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, total biomass, and root:shoot ratio were all increased for plants grown pot-in-pot compared to above-ground. Multiple irrigation cycles increased stem diameter, shoot dry weight, and total biomass, compared to a single irrigation application. Multiple irrigation cycles decreased the root:shoot ratio. Evapotranspiration was influenced by production system, irrigation, and date. Amount of water lost as leachate was influenced by irrigation and date. Cyclic irrigation resulted in a two-fold decrease in leachate volume. Soluble salts and nitrate-nitrogen in the leachate were influenced by an interaction between production system, irrigation, and date.

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Guillermo Cardoso, Roger Kjelgren, Teresa Cerny-Koenig and Rich Koenig

Low water landscapes are increasing popular and important in the urban areas of the Intermountain West (IMW). Perennial wildflowers are an essential part of low water landscapes, and are a dominant plant type in IMW native habitats. We compared pot-in-pot (PIP) vs. conventional above-ground (CAG) production of six IMW native wildflower species, Mirabilismultiflora, Aquilegia caerulea, Penstemon palmeri, Polemonium foliosissimum, Sphaeralcea grossularifolia, and Penstemonstrictus in #1 (4-L) containers. Media temperature, container-plant water loss, stomatal conductance, and growth were measured during two production cycles per year over 2 years. Growing medium temperatures in the PIP system averaged 10 °C cooler than in the CAG system. Consistent with cooler growing media, overall water loss of PIP-grown plants averaged 10% lower than plants grown in the CAG production system. Lower growing media temperatures apparently affected transpiration, as stomatal conductance was about 60% higher in the PIP system as compared to the CAG-grown plants. The integrated effect of lower growing media temperatures on plant performance resulted in about one-third greater top and root growth for plants growing in the PIP system compared to those in the CAG system. Pot-in-pot production may be an economically suitable nursery system for producing IMW native perennial wildflowers by reducing water loss and enhancing growth.

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J. Roger Harris, Alex X. Niemiera, Robert D. Wright and Charles H. Parkerson

Three experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using Biobarrier, a landscape fabric with trifluralin herbicide-impregnated nodules, of various sizes to prevent root escape of trees from the drainage holes of 56-liter containers in below-ground pot-in-pot (P&P) and above-ground Keeper Upper (KU) nursery production systems. In addition, side holes or slits were cut in some container walls to test the effect of Biobarrier on the prevention of circling roots. In Expt. 1 (P&P), Betula nigra L. `Heritage' (river birch) trees with no Biobarrier had root ratings for roots escaped through drainage holes that indicated a 5-fold increase in numbers of roots than for treatments containing Biobarrier. All Biobarrier treatments reduced root escape and resulted in commercially acceptable control. In Expt. 2 (KU), control and the Biobarrier treatment river birch trees (30 nodules) had commercially unacceptable root escape. In Expt. 3 (P&P), control and 10-nodule treatment Prunus × yedoensis Matsum. (Yoshino cherry) trees had commercially unacceptable root escape, but treatments containing 20 and 40 nodules resulted in commercially acceptable control. Biobarrier did not limit shoot growth in any of the experiments. The results of these experiments indicate that Biobarrier did not prevent circling roots, but sheets containing at least 8 or 20 nodules of trifluralin acceptably prevented root escape from drainage holes in the pot-in-pot production of 56-liter container river birch trees and Yoshino cherry trees, respectively.

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John M. Ruter

Membrane thermostability of Heritage river birch (Betula nigra L. Heritage) was measured by electrolyte leakage from excised roots of plants grown in pot-in-pot (PIP) and conventional aboveground production systems (CPS). The predicted critical midpoint temperature (Tm) for a 30-min exposure was 54.6 ± 0.2 °C for PIP and 56.2 ± 0.6 °C for CPS plants. Plants grown PIP had a steeper slope through the predicted Tm, suggesting a decreased tolerance to high root-zone temperatures in relation to plants grown aboveground. Since the root systems of Heritage river birch grown PIP are damaged at lower temperatures than plants grown aboveground, growers should prevent exposure of root systems to high temperatures during postproduction handling of plants grown PIP.

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Kathryn Wimberley and Dr. Pat Williams

Kentucky West Nursery Cooperative, producers of pot-in-pot trees, needed recommendations on slow-release fertilizer applications due to regional environmental influences affecting production. Murray State University established a pot-in-pot tree nursery to research these influences in 2004. Two different fertilizer applications in three different treatments were tested on one-year old bare-root whips of Acer rubrum `Red Sunset' and `Autumn Blaze'. These trees were planted in 100% pine bark in 15-gallon pots and placed in the sockets with a complete random split-block design. Drip irrigation by spray stakes watered each pot. Nursery floor was kept clean by landscape fabric. New growth was pruned as needed to keep the trees within nursery standards. Tree calipers were measured on 1 Apr. and 1 Dec. 2004 at the beginning and end of growth. Leaves for chlorophyll readings were randomly selected to measure nitrogen uptake in late summer. Measurements were analyzed by SAS 9.1 and results found no significant differences among the treatments either in caliper increase or in chlorophyll levels (SAS, 2002). This experiment recommends a treatment using one application of slow-release fertilizer, versus split or additional applications, provides equal, quality growth of Acer rubrum `Autumn Blaze' and `Red Sunset'. The information gathered will direct fertilizer applications for KWNC and reduce their labor costs.

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Pinghai Ding*, Minggang Cui and Leslie H. Fuchigami

Reserve nitrogen is an important factor for plant growth and fruiting performance in tree fruit crops. The fall foliar urea application appears to be an efficient method for increasing N reserves. The effect of fall foliar urea application on N reserves and fruiting performance were studied with four year old `Gala'/M26 trees grown in 20 gallon containers in a pot-in-pot system from 2001 to 2003 at the Lewis-Brown Horticulture Farm of Oregon State Univ.. The trees were either sprayed with 0 or 2 times 3% urea after harvest in October. Shoot and spur samples were taken at the dormant season for reserve N analysis. Fruit performance was recorded in the following growing season. The fall foliar application significantly increased spur N reserve and had the trend to increase shoot N reserve but not significantly. The fall foliar application significantly increased tree fruit set and cluster fruit set. With normal fruit thinning, fall foliar urea application has the trend to increase both tree yield and average fruit size; without fruit thinning, fall foliar urea application has the trend to increase tree yield. These results indicate that fall foliar urea application an effective method to increase reserve N for maintaining tree yield.