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Iftikhar Ahmad, John M. Dole, and Frank A. Blazich

( Staby et al., 1993 ). However, postharvest longevity of cut flowers is also affected by a variety of both preharvest (e.g., harvest season, solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, water, and mineral nutrient stress) ( Halevy and Mayak, 1979

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Susan M. Stieve and Dennis P. Stimart

Selecting for increased postharvest longevity through use of natural variation is being investigated in Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) in order to decrease postharvest chemical treatments for cut flowers. The postharvest longevity of eighteen white commercial inbreds was evaluated. Twelve stems of each inbred were cut to 40 cm and placed in distilled water. Stems were discarded when 50% of spike florets wilted or browned. Postharvest longevity ranged from 3.0 (Inbred 1) to 16.3 (Inbred 18) days. Crossing Inbred 18 × Inbred 1 yields commercially used Hybrid 1 (6.6 days postharvest). The F2 population averaged 9.1 days postharvest (range 1 to 21 days). F3 plants indicate short life postharvest may be conferred by a recessive gene in this germplasm. Populations for generation means analysis as well as hybrids between short, medium and long-lived inbreds were generated and evaluated for postharvest longevity.

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M.J. Ricci, N.K. Lownds, and R.D. Berghage

Studies were conducted to determine postharvest longevity of field grown Desert Marigold (Baileya multiradiata) and perennial Aster (Aster bigelovii) cut flowers. Flower stems were cut and placed into storage at 4, 7, 15 and 24C in the dark. Storage treatments included DI water, citric acid (CA), floralife (F), silver thiosulfate (STS) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Flowers were rated daily using a scale of 1 (optimum condition) to 4 (unsaleable). Postharvest longevity of Baileya decreased quadratically with increasing temperature, (r2=0.67, P=0.001) between 4 and 24C. For Aster, postharvest longevity was greatest at 7C (13.3 days), slightly less at 4C (10.5 days) and only 5 days at 15 and 24C. Postharvest longevity of Baileya at 4C was doubled using STS, but was not affected by CA or F. MAP increased postharvest longevity of Aster 1.6- to 2.2-fold at each temperature. Other storage treatments for Aster were ineffective. The results suggest MAP may have potential as a storage technique for commercial cut flowers.

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William J. Martin and Dennis P. Stimart

Cut flowers of Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) P1, P2, F1, F3, and F2 × F2 plants were harvested after the first five flowers were open and were evaluated for postharvest longevity to further evaluate genes conditioning postharvest longevity. F3 progeny evaluated were derived by selfing F2 selections of long keeping, mid-range, and short keeping types. F2 × F2 progeny evaluated were derived from crosses within and between postharvest longevity categories. Populations for evaluation were grown in the greenhouse in winter 1998-1999 in a randomized complete-block design according to standard forcing procedures. Thirty plants of each genotype were held in the laboratory in deionized water under continuous fluorescent lighting at 22 °C for postharvest assessment. The end of postharvest life was defined as 50% of the flowers drying, browning, or wilting. Data will be presented on postharvest longevity and allelic relationships within populations.

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Susan M. Stieve and Dennis P. Stimart

Eighteen commercially used white Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) inbreds, a hybrid of Inbred 1 × Inbred 18 (Hybrid 1) and an F2 population (F2) of Hybrid 1 were evaluated for stomatal size and density and transpiration rate to determine their affect on postharvest longevity. Stems of each genotype were cut to 40 cm, placed in distilled water and discarded when 50% of florets wilted or browned. Postharvest longevity of inbreds ranged from 3.7 to 12.9 days; Hybrid 1 and the F2 averaged 3.0 and 9.1 days postharvest, respectively. Leaf impressions showed less than 3% of stomata were found on the adaxial leaf surface. Inbred abaxial stomatal densities ranged from 128.2 to 300.7 stomata mm-2; Hybrid 1 and the F2 averaged 155 and 197 stomata mm-2, respectively. Transpiration measurments on leaves of stems 24 hr after cutting were made with a LI-COR 1600 Steady State Porometer. Statistical analysis showed inbreds were significantly different based on postharvest longevity, stomatal size and density and transpiration of cut stems.

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William J. Martin and Dennis P. Stimart

On-plant floret longevity and cutflower postharvest longevity (PHL) of Antirrhinum majus L., snapdragon, were evaluated using inbreds P1 (16 day PHL) and P2 (6 day PHL), F1 (P1 × P2), F2 (F1 self-pollinated), F2 × F2 (among and within PHL categories: long, 17 to 25 days; middle, 9 days; and short, 2 to 3 days), and F3 families (F2 self-pollinated). F2 on-plant floret longevity and PHL correlated to later generation PHL. Prediction of progeny PHL from F2 × F2 matings appears feasible if genotypic value for PHL of F2 is known. Selection for PHL is best based on evaluation of multiple cutflowers per genotype. Significant additive and dominant genetic variance components contribute to PHL.

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Julie P. Newman, Michael S. Reid, and Linda Dodge

Commercial formulations of silver thiosulfate (STS) were evaluated for their efficacy in promoting postharvest longevity of gypsophila. Argylene, Chrysal AVB, Chrysal OVB, Oasis Dry Flower Conditioner, Rogard RS, and Silflor were compared to the anionic STS complex and to Physan plus sucrose. Flowers were pulse treated, then placed overnight at 2° C in Physan plus sucrose. Flowers treated with Rogard RS, Chrysal OVB, and Physan were held continuously in the solution. Overnight treatments of STS were compared to short pulses at higher concentrations. To simulate the effect of shipment, treated flowers were packed in boxes, then held either for 48 hours at room temperature (12-18° C) or for 60 hours in a range of ethylene concentrations. Individual stems were then placed in Physan plus sucrose. The number of open flowers, buds, and dead flowers was determined on each stem at various intervals. All products effectively extended the display life of gypsophila except Rogard RS and Chrysal OVB. Although overnight treatments with STS formulations were not as effective as pulse treatments, their convenience could warrant commercial use.

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William J. Martin and Dennis P. Stimart

Stomatal density is being investigated as a highly correlated trait to postharvest longevity (PHL) and subsequently may be used for selection in early generations of breeding germplasm. To this end, leaf imprints were created from Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) P1, P2, F1, BC1 (F1×P1), BC2 (F1×P2), F2, and F3 plants and evaluated for stomatal densities. Cut flowers of P1, P2, F1, BC1 (F1×P1), BC2 (F1×P2), and F3 were harvested after the first five flowers opened and evaluated for PHL. Additionally, cut flowers from these lines were evaluated for leaf surface area. Populations for evaluation were grown in the greenhouse in winter and spring 1999-2000 in a randomized complete-block design according to standard forcing procedures. Twenty-five cut flowering stems of each genotype were held in the laboratory in deionized water under continuous fluorescent lighting at 22 °C for PHL assessment. The end of PHL was defined as 50% of the flowers drying, browning, or wilting. Data will be presented on the correlation between stomatal density and PHL.

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Jaime A. Weber, William J. Martin, and Dennis P. Stimart

Progeny of 158 F5 × F5 crosses of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) selected within and among cut flower postharvest longevity (PHL) categories (long = 12.6-16.8 days, middle = 9.3-12.1 days, and short = 4.8-8.9 days) were evaluated for PHL and quality traits. Results were compared with previous studies involving F2 × F2 progeny, and F3, F4, and F5 inbred lines. Heritability of PHL in F5 × F5 progeny (0.77 ± 0.11) agrees with that of inbred lines (0.79 to 0.81) but is higher than in F2 × F2 progeny (0.41). Therefore, selection for increased PHL should progress more rapidly and predictably through application of inbred lines rather than F2 individuals. Significant differences between F5 × F5 progeny PHL categories confirm PHL is heritable with a significant additive component. Heritabilities of quality traits in A. majus are high, suggesting selection for quality traits should progress without difficulty. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations of PHL with quality traits are not consistently significant across PHL studies in A. majus. Discrepancies between studies suggest most traits may not be correlated to PHL or are subject to strong environmental influence.

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R. Porat, B. Weiss, I. Zipori, and A. Dag

storage longevity and the ripening physiology of the ‘King’ and ‘Omri’ guava compared with ‘Ben Dov’, and found that they exhibit distinctive climacteric behaviors and differ in their postharvest longevity and responsiveness to 1-MCP. Materials and methods