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entries, and neither study documented how these plants might affect other organisms in the system, such as beneficial pollinating insects. In highly managed turfgrass systems, many flowering bulbs may be unable to withstand basic lawn cultural practices

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Changes in land use patterns, resulting in overall reductions in natural habitat and nutrient-rich floral resources, have resulted in the decline of some wild and domesticated pollinator populations ( Foley et al., 2005 ; Potts et al., 2010

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found to affect seed yield and even the fatty acid composition of seed oil ( Xie et al., 2017 ). Self-incompatibility usually refers to the phenomenon in which a fertile hermaphrodite seed plant cannot produce zygotes after self-pollination. Based on the

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The plant–pollinator relationship is mutually beneficial, as plants supply nourishment in the form of pollen and nectar to the insect while the insect ensures reproduction and survival in plants ( Ollerton et al., 2011 ). Human and animal

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Olive trees are wind-pollinated and partially self-incompatible ( Androulakis and Loupassaki, 1990 ; Cuevas et al., 2001 ; Lavee and Datt, 1978 ; Lavee et al., 2002 ), which is probably the result of the gametophytic system of self

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of interspecific hybrid swarms ( Camp, 1942 ; Vander Kloet 1983 , 1988 ). Studies of self-pollination and cross-pollination in several Vaccinium species have provided varying results. In most cases, partial to complete self-incompatibility was

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Cucurbit vegetables are predominantly out-crossers and depend on insect pollinators to transfer pollen from staminate to pistillate or hermaphroditic flowers for fruit set and development ( Robinson and Decker-Walters, 1997 ). Although there are

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-October ( Matthews et al., 2002 ) or until a killing frost. This sunflower is a self-incompatible and largely insect-pollinated species (R. Trigiano, unpublished data) that does not lend itself to wind pollination ( Mandel, 2010 ). Pollinators of H. verticillatus

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Hazelnuts, (Corylus avellana L.), are wind-pollinated, monoecious, mostly dichogamous, and self-incompatible. About 90% of the cultivars studied are protandrous. Anthesis of the pistillate flower is temperature-dependent and occurs December through February, peaking in January. Stigmatic surfaces may remain receptive for up to 3 months. Four to 5 months separate pollination and fertilization of the ovule; the latter usually occurring between mid-May and the end of June in Oregon. A 10% pollinizer density has been the standard, with a recommended distance of 66 ft (20 m) or less between the main cultivar and the nearest pollinizer. Two or three different pollinizer cultivars, with different times of pollen shed, are recommended. The Oregon hazelnut industry is presently combating the fungal disease, eastern filbert blight, caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck). Current management recommendations suggest reducing risk of infection are to reduce the most susceptible pollinizer cultivars to a density 5%, then gradually replace those left with immune or more resistant genotypes.

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Ofori-Frimpong, 2013 ). No more than 10% of the flowers produced are naturally pollinated ( Groeneveld et al., 2010 ) and even fewer (0.5% to 5%) develop into mature pods under open pollination conditions, primarily because of fruit abortion ( Bos et al

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