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The recommended daily light integral (DLI) to produce high-quality young annual bedding plants (plugs) is 10 to 12 mol·m −2 ·d −1 ( Lopez and Runkle 2008 ; Pramuk and Runkle 2005 ). However, plug production often begins in midwinter to early

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A low natural DLI in winter at northern latitudes in North America often necessitates the use of supplemental electric lighting to produce high-quality young annual bedding plants (plugs) in commercial greenhouses ( Poel and Runkle 2017

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major limitation to the increased use of zoysiagrass. Zoysiagrass establishment by plugs or sprigs can take up to 2 years, or longer, to reach complete coverage ( Hume and Freyre, 1950 ; Sifers et al., 1992a , 1992b ). Delayed establishment may

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variability in transplant size and flowering pattern ( Bish et al., 1997 ; Hokanson et al., 2004 ). Strawberry plug transplants (SP) are an alternative to BR. The active root system and water retention capacity of the SP allows them to establish with minimal

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( Hickman, 1986 ; Ahmad et al., 2014 ), and decreasing abiotic stresses ( Bañón et al., 2006 ) in ornamental potted and nursery plants. Ancymidol is also used extensively for ornamental plug production and plant growth management ( Miranda and Carlson, 1980

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). Instead, practitioners recommend using plugs of prairie dropseed in restored sites (B. Carter, personal communication, 26 Aug. 2019). Using plugs in place of direct seeding was determined to be a viable way to establish species that are rare, with

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to the exclusion of other products or vendors that may be suitable. We gratefully acknowledge the work of student interns Matthew Stevens and Emma Wallace for their assistance in plug conditioning and environmental monitoring. We thank Nihal Rajapakse

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concentrations of B and lead to the development of visual symptoms of B deficiency. Materials and Methods ‘Dynamite Yellow’ pansy, ‘White Storm’ petunia, and ‘Festival Apricot’ gerbera seeds were sown in 288-plug trays cut into 2 × 2-cell flats (each cell: 2 cm

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assimilation rate; PMT, plug medium temperature; PPF, photosynthetic photon flux; QI, quality index. 1 Former Graduate Research Assistant; currently, Research Associate. 2 Professor. Research funded by a grant from the New York State Dept. of Agriculture and

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Plugs are rapidly replacing fresh-dug bare-root and cold-stored frigo plants as transplants for strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) production worldwide. Plugs have many advantages over these other types of propagules. They are grown in controlled environments (greenhouses, tunnels) in less time than field produced bare-root transplants, and are not exposed to soilborne pathogens. Plugs afford greater grower control of transplanting dates, provide mechanical transplanting opportunities and allow improved water management for transplant establishment relative to fresh bare-root plants. New uses for plugs have been identified in recent years; for example, photoperiod and temperature conditioned plugs flower and fruit earlier than traditional transplants and plugs have been used for programmed greenhouse production. Tray plants have superior cold storage characteristics relative to bare-root, waiting-bed transplants. Both fresh and frozen plugs are used in a number of indoor and outdoor growing conditions and cultural systems.

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