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James A. Schrader, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, Kenneth G. McCabe, and William R. Graves

An important obstacle to long-term sustainability in the container-crops industry is the nearly universal reliance on containers made from petroleum-based plastics. Although petroleum-plastic containers favor efficiency and profitability, their use

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Michael A. Arnold

Five species of trees, Fraxinus velutina Torr., Pistacia chinensis Bunge, Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus virginiana Mill., and Ulmus parvifolia Jacq., were first grown in 0.45-L conventional black plastic liner containers, then transplanted to 25-L black plastic containers and grown to a marketable size. The same species were grown in similar-size, open-bottom, air-root pruning, cylindrical, aluminum (Accelerator) containers filled with the equal volumes of media. Plant growth characteristics, root-zone temperatures, and media moisture status were measured. Growth of Q. virginiana was reduced in Accelerator liner containers compared to conventional black plastic liners. Accelerator liners did eliminate circling and deflection of roots at the bottom of the liner containers. Growth of U. parvifolia, F. velutina, and Q. virginiana were similar in the larger 25-L Accelerator and black plastic containers, while growth of P. chinensis and P. occidentalis were greater in Accelerator containers than in conventional black plastic containers. Root-zone temperatures, particularly at the periphery of the rootball, were significantly reduced on warm days in Accelerator containers compared to those in black plastic containers. Media in Accelerator containers were slightly drier than that in black plastic containers.

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Michael R. Boersig, Preston Hartsell, and Joseph Smilanick

Methyl bromide (MB) penetration rates, sorption levels, and concentration.time (CT) products were compared in returnable plastic containers (RPCs) and corrugated grape boxes (CGBs). During a 2.5-hour fumigation, sorption of methyl bromide in RPCs and CGBs was 9.8% and 18.1%, respectively. The lower sorption in RPCs increased the exposure of grapes (Vitis vinifera) to MB. Equilibrium concentrations of MB (concentrations that had stabilized) in RPCs and CGBs were 68.2 and 59.2 g·m-3 (4.26 and 3.70 lb/1000 ft3) respectively. The CT products in RPCs and CGBs were 170.5 and 147.6 g·h-1·m-3 (10.66 and 9.19 lb/h/1000 ft3), respectively, and far below phytotoxic concentrations according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture schedule.

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E.F. Gilman and R.J. Beeson

The root : shoot ratio for Ilex cassine L. grown 7 months in copper-treated containers was less than in nontreated containers. There was less dry weight for roots <5 mm in diameter in copper-treated containers than in nontreated containers in the outer 1 cm of the rootball. Dry weight of roots >5 mm in diameter within the rootball were not affected by copper hydroxide treatment. Coating the interior of a plastic container with cupric hydroxide eliminated coarse roots (> 5 mm in diameter) and significantly reduced fine root weight from the outer 1 cm of the rootball. Fine roots inside the rootball did not replace fine roots lacking in the outer 1 cm.

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J. Roger Harris and Edward F. Gilman

Abbreviations: CER, carbon exchange rate; FC, fabric containers; FG, field grown; PC, plastic containers; Ψ leaf , leaf water potential. 1 Current address: Urban Horticulture Institute, 20 Plant Science Bldg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853

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Amy Fulcher, Diana R. Cochran, and Andrew K. Koeser

Ornamental plant production relies almost exclusively on petroleum-based plastic containers. Within the United States, annual plastic use for ornamental plant containers is estimated at 1.66 billion pounds ( Schrader, 2013 ). Worldwide, ≈8% of

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Susmitha Nambuthiri, Amy Fulcher, Andrew K. Koeser, Robert Geneve, and Genhua Niu

Plastic containers have been the predominant container type in U.S. greenhouse and nursery production since the 1980s. Serving a variety of functions and found in a multitude of shapes, sizes, and colors, plastic containers are used for propagating

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Yu-Sen Chang and Chen-Yu Lin

The effect of copper hydroxide [Cu(OH)2] applied to interior container surfaces on shoot and root responses was evaluated on palimara alstonia (Alstonia scholaris). The seedlings grown in Cu(OH)2-treated containers had greater plant height than those in untreated containers, and had no observable copper toxicity symptoms. Cu(OH)2-treated containers effectively reduced root circling on the surface of rootballs compared with untreated containers. The Cu(OH)2 treatment significantly increased the dry weight of fine roots (those with a diameter 0-2 mm) and small roots (>2-5 mm) but did not influence the dry weight of medium roots (>5-10 mm), large roots (>10 mm), or total roots. The Cu(OH)2 treatment also significantly increased total root length and surface, which was due principally to the increasing length and surface of the fine roots. The results indicated that the Cu(OH)2 treatment, which can improve the root quality of palimara alstonia seedlings and thereby increase the root-length-to-leaf-area ratio and the root-surface-to-leaf-area ratio, has the potential to produce high-quality plants.

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Stephanie A. Beeks and Michael R. Evans

typically discarded, and this results in large amounts of waste plastic containers going to landfills. One potential solution to the large amounts of waste plastic greenhouse containers is the use of biocontainers. Biocontainers are generally defined as

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Stephanie A. Beeks and Michael R. Evans

sizes. However, after use, these containers are typically discarded, and this results in large amounts of waste plastic containers going to landfills. One potential solution to the large amounts of waste plastic greenhouse containers is the use of