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emergence are essential for growth in domestic edamame production. Appropriate planting depth is an essential management decision for all annual crops. Recommended planting depth of grain-type soybean is 3.2 to 4.5 cm ( Hummel et al., 1981 ; Nafziger, 2009

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planting depth, defined as the location of the root collar relative to soil surface (grade), is of particular concern because optimum planting depth may vary among species and may be dependent on cultural practices and/or environmental conditions ( Arnold

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nationwide ( USDA, 2016b ). Sweetpotato transplant size and planting depth in production fields are important considerations because sweetpotato is vegetatively propagated by using nonrooted stem cuttings (also called transplants or slips) for commercial

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Growers, nurseries, landscape contractors and installers, and those responsible for maintenance have observed a trend that trees are too deep within the root ball. This study addresses the relationship between planting depth and its effect on tree survival, root growth, root architecture, and caliper growth. The experiment was initiated to determine the effect of planting depth on nursery-grown trees. Three-year-old, 2.1–2.7 m, bare-root liners of Acer platanoides `Emerald Lustre', Fraxinus americana `Autumn Purple', Fraxinus pennsylvanica `Patmore', and Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis `Shade Master' were planted in April 2004 in a completely randomized design with 20 replications per treatment per species. The trees were selected so that the distance between the graft union and the trunk flare was consistent. Trees were planted with the graft union 15.2 cm below the soil surface, or with the base of the graft union at the finished grade or with the trunk flare at the finished grade. The trees were grown in a nursery field setting with minimal supplemental watering. There were no differences in stem caliper growth at the end of two seasons in any of the four species. Root dry mass, stem elongation, and rooting structure were determined on a representative sample of trees while others were planted into the landscape for a long-term study of the effects of the original planting depth on landscape performance.

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content [e.g., jimsonweed ( Datura stramonium L.)] ( Benvenuti, 2003 ). Increased planting depth can also affect germination and emergence ( Benvenuti and Macchia, 1995 ). Large crabgrass emerged when seeds were present within 8 cm of the soil surface

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appropriate planting depth might increase saffron production and quality. Planting depth in saffron crocus can affect saffron production and quality by affecting corm growth and development along with leaf and flower size and number ( De Juan et al . 2009

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.e., remediation) have not been reported. The objectives of our study therefore were to test the effects of planting depth of container-grown liners of pin oak and littleleaf linden on 1) growth during production in 0.05-m 3 (50-L; #15) nursery containers and on 2

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Buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] is a warm-season perennial grass native to the North American Great Plains region and has been used as a low-maintenance turfgrass. Turf-type buffalograsses are available and are commonly used on nonirrigated land. Our objectives were to determine the deepest planting depth of burrs that would allow acceptable emergence, and to evaluate planting depth effects on buffalograss seedling morphology. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in Fall 2000. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 replications and a 3 (cultivar) × 6 (planting depth) factorial treatment arrangement. Results showed that buffalograss emergence decreased as planting depth increased. All cultivars had <10% total emergence at planting depths >50 mm. Emergence rate indices were greatest when planting depth was 13 mm and were significantly lower at planting depths of 51 and 76 mm. Average coleoptile length was 11 mm. Coleoptile length was similar between all planting depths except for the 13 mm depth which resulted in 9-mm-long coleoptile. Subcoleoptile internode length increased with planting depth up to 38 mm. Planting depths deeper than 38 mm did not significantly increase subcoleoptile internode length.

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Abstract

A 7-year trial with ‘Empire’, ‘Rogers McIntosh’, ‘Macspur’, and ‘Oregon Spur Red Delicious’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) with a Mailing (M) 9 stempiece on Mailing Merton (MM) 106 or MM 111 rootstocks showed that planting depth influenced trunk cross-sectional area, number of root suckers, and yield. More root suckers and smaller trunk circumferences were found with trees whose stempieces were aboveground. Growth and yield was influenced more by the rootstock and/or cultivar than by planting depth. ‘Delicious’ trees were the smallest and least productive. Suckering seemed to be related to less growth and yield.

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An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse environment to determine the relationship between type of cutting and planting depth on sweetpotato [Ipomea batatas (L) Lam] storage root yield using the nutrient film technique. Vine cuttings of the cultivar 'TI-155' were planted in growth channels (122×15×15 cm) in modified half Hoagland's solution. Treatments consisted of cuttings with all leaves and shoot apex removed with two nodes inserted (2NB), cuttings with all leaves and shoot apex removed with five nodes inserted (5NB). and cuttings with four leaves and the shoot apex remaining with two nodes inserted (2NB-L). Plants were harvested 130 days after planting and yield data was taken. Plants in 2NB-L had a significantly lower percent dry matter than those of 2NB. Neither cutting type nor planting depth affected yield or yield related parameters.

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