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J.W. Boyd, M.D. Richardson, and J.H. McCalla

Zoysiagass (Zoysia japonica) use continues to expand on golf courses, home lawns, and sports fields in the transition zone. Unfortunately, the slow growth rate of the species and long establishment period have limited its use to those sites that can afford zoysiagrass sod. The development of sprig-planting techniques that can produce a zoysiagrass turf in a single season would considerably increase the use of this desirable species. A study was conducted over 2 years at two different regions in Arkansas to evaluate the efficacy of a new zoysiagrass net-planting technique (ZNET) on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. The technique involves rolling the sprigs onto the site in cotton netting and top-dressing the sprigs with 1.0 cm (0.4 inch) of native soil. This technique was compared to a standard sprig-planting technique and a standard sprig planting that was also top-dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil. The standard treatments were planted according to established methods using freshly-harvested sprigs applied at a rate of 70.0 m3·ha-1 [800 bushels (1000 ft3) per acre]. Rate of turfgrass cover was monitored throughout the growing season. The ZNET planting technique significantly improved establishment over the traditional sprigging technique and the turf reached about 85% cover by the end of the growing season (120 days). Top-dressing a traditionally sprigged area with native soil also improvedestablishment compared to traditional sprigging and was comparable to the ZNET technique. It was concluded that the ZNET technique did improve establishment rates of zoysiagrass, but the same results could be attained by top-dressing sprigs that were planted with a standard planter.

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Yan Chen, Regina Bracy, and Allen Owings

Annual vinca, Catharanthus roseus, is exceptionally adaptive to the summer heat and the sandy loam or clay soil in the southeastern region and provides season-long blooms once established in landscape plantings. A wide variety of colors, sizes, and applications are available for landscape use. However, diseases such as alternaria leaf spot and phytophthora leaf blight are prevalent in this region in vinca plantings. Effective disease control requires frequent fungicide application that is expensive and may pose negative effects on the environment. Proper planting techniques including date of planting, fertilization rate at planting, and variety selection may improve plant growth, reduce disease severity, and save landscape service business labor in disease management. Plants of three varieties: open-pollinated `Cooler Hot Rose', F1 hybrid `Titan Rose', and trailing variety `Mediterranean Lilac' were planted on 1 Apr. or 1 May in landscape plots. Plants were at the same growth stage at the time of planting and were fertilized with Osmocote 14–14–14 (3 months) at 0, 35, 70, or 140 g·m2. Plant growth index indicates that plant growth increased significantly at increasing fertilization rates; however, plant overall quality ratings were not significantly different among fertilized plants. Disease incidence in July suggests that late planting may reduce alternaria leaf spot in open-pollinated and hybrid upright type vinca. Disease severity in August was more pronounced on trailing vinca and more severe when plants were not fertilized or fertilized with the highest fertilization rate. Tissue analysis indicates that trailing vinca `Mediterranean Lilac' may require less fertilization than upright type.

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Darlene Wilcox-Lee and Daniel T. Drost

Crowns and tranplants of `Martha Washington' (MW) and `Jersey Prince' (JP) asparagus were planted in 1985. Plots were harvested for 0,2,4 weeks (traditional schedule); 1,2,6 weeks (moderate harvest pressure); or 2,4,8 weeks (severe harvest pressure) in 1986, 1987, and 1988, respectively. All plots were harvested for 8 weeks after 1988. An AOV was performed to test the main effects of cv, planting technique and harvest schedules and interactions on early and total season yield of large, medium-sized and total spears. MW produced a significantly higher yield of both early and total season large spears than JP in all years. Total yields did not differ between cvs. There was no significant effect of planting technique on yield in any year. Harvest schedules imposed in the first 3 years had significant long term effects on yield. Although severe harvest pressure produced larger yields than the other schedules in 1986-1988, from 1989-1991 yields were lowest in the severe harvest pressure plots. The traditional harvest schedule produced similar yields to the moderate pressure schedule. There were no consistent interactions between cultivar, planting technique and harvest schedule These data indicate that a slightly more aggressive harvest schedule in the early years of an asparagus planting would not have long term deterimental effect on yield. However, severe cutting pressure can reduce yields compared to traditional cutting schedules for at least 3 years after initial harvest pressure treatment

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Wesley R. Autio, Duane W. Greene, Daniel R. Cooley, and James R. Schupp

Increasing the N application rate (in the form NH4NO3 to newly planted `Marshall McIntosh'/M.9 apple (Malus domestica, Borkh.) trees beyond 76 g N per tree per year reduced growth in the first two growing seasons. Peat moss or composted manure mixed into the planting hole of `Royal Gala'/M.26 increased growth in the first growing season after planting. The soil-active fungicides, fosetyl-Al and metalaxyl, increased trunk and shoot growth of `Royal Gala'/M.26 in the first season after planting. Mulching enhanced growth of `Gala'/M.26 only in the third season after planting, a season during which the region experienced a drought. Mulching significantly increased bloom on `Gala'/M.26 2 years after planting. The growth of `Royal Gala'/M.26, `Marshall McIntosh'/M.26, and `Ace Delicious'/M.26 was not affected by planting technique planting by hand in 61-cm augered holes vs. planting with a mechanical tree planter. Chemical names used N-(2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(methloxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester (metalaxyl); aluminum tris (O-ethyl phosphonate) (fosetyl-Al); 1,1'-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium ion (paraquat); isopropylamine salt of N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate).

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Julie Guckenberger Price, Amy N. Wright, Robert S. Boyd, and Kenneth M. Tilt

). Wright et al. (2007) described a modified above-grade planting technique in which the upper portion of the root ball remained above the soil surface, and PB was mounded around the above-grade portion of the root ball, tapering from the top of the root

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Julie Guckenberger Price, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, and Robert L. Boyd

proven to be a very successful technique both with trees ( Arnold et al., 2005 ) and shrubs ( Wright et al., 2007 ). Wright et al. (2007) described a modified above-grade planting technique in which the upper 7.6 cm of the root ball remained above the

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C.A. Huetteman, J.E. Preece, W.C. Ashby, and P.L. Roth

Four selected clones from each of 15 provenances were clonally micropropagated and established in plastic mulch in both upland and lowland plantations in southern Illinois. Despite a severe drought, survival in the field was 95%. The plastic mulch controlled weeds, reduced erosion, and supplemental irrigation was not necessary. Although clonal differences in field mortality were statistically significant, the lower survival of some clones may be attributable to plantlet size and planting technique rather than to genetic differences among clones. There was a longer growing season for trees from the midwest and southern provenances as evidenced by date of bud set. As a group, trees from the IL, IN, KS, and MS provenances set bud 26 days later in the upland site and 19 days later in the lowland site than the trees from the northern provenances of MN, NH, Ontario, and VT. The shorter growing season resulted in reduced height and caliper growth of trees from the northern provenances.

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L. Nash, W. Fountain, and M. Witt

In a unique partnership. the University of Kentucky Dept. of Horticulture, the Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky State Division of Forestry are teaming up to produce two training packages for “train-the-trainer” workshops throughout the state. The workshops will be open to people interested in urban/community trees and arboriculture.

The first training session will be held in 1993 and will cover five modules: 1) Designing the planting site to compensate for a disturbed environment; 2) Species selection for the existing site; 3) Scientific planting techniques; 4) Post-planting care: and 5) Integrated pest management.

The second training session will be held in 1994 and will cover the following topics: 1) Establishing a scientific management program for the urban forest; 2) Preparation and administration of grants: 3) Fund-raising and efficient use of volunteers; 4) Developing an urban tree inventory; 5) Recognition of hazard trees; and 6) Selecting quality nursery stock.

The training packages will consist of a written manual, videos, and slide sets. Training sessions are open to foresters, county agents, city planners, developers, and others in Kentucky who are interested in returning to their communities and training others on the topics covered.

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Timothy J. Smalley and Carleton B. Wood

Commonly used planting techniques and soil amendments were compared to determine their effect on root growth, shoot growth, and drought tolerance of 2.5 cm caliper Acer rubrum. Study I: Trees were planted on 6 April 1992 into holes backfilled with 1) native soil, 2) 50% aged pine bark: 50% native soil, 3) 50% Mr. Natural™:50% native soil, or 4) 100% Mr. Natural™. Mr. Natural™ consists of granite sand, expanded shale, and composted poultry litter. After two years, no differences in growth or survival existed. Study II: On 8 April 1992, trees were planted in 1) unamended planting holes, 2) tilled planting beds, or 3) tilled and pine bark-amended planting beds. Five months after planting, the root growth in the tilled and tilled-amended beds did not differ, but both had more root growth than planting holes. Amendment-induced nitrogen deficiency reduced shoot growth of the tilled-amended treatment during the first year. After two years, the planting hole treatment exhibited the least shoot growth, while shoot growth of tilled and tilled-amended treatments did not differ. StudyIII: Selected trees in study II were drought stressed for 8 weeks beginning 4 August 1993. No differences in relative leaf water content among treatments were observed Results suggest that native soil should be used as backfill in planting holes; however, tilling a planting bed increases root and shoot growth compared to planting in a hole. Amending beds with pine bark did not increase growth or drought tolerance.

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Allen V. Barker

modification. Bioengineering of plants is expected to play a major role in the production of natural compounds in plants. Techniques through which biotechnology may be applied in the biosynthesis of natural products in several model plant species are discussed