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Thomas W. Walters, John N. Pinkerton, Ekaterini Riga, Inga A. Zasada, Michael Particka, Harvey A. Yoshida and Chris Ishida

Plant–parasitic nematodes are major pests of red raspberry, reducing yield and cane growth, and leading to economic losses in many production regions ( Belair, 1991 ; McElroy, 1991 ; Szczygiel and Rebandel, 1988 ; Trudgill, 1986 ). Three plant–parasitic

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John R. Clark and Robert Robbins

Two replicated blueberry plantings, one containing one highbush, (Vaccinium corymbosum) two southern highbush and two rabbiteye (V.ashei) cultivars, and another containing one highbush and three rabbiteye cultivars were sampled in October, 1991 and plant parasitic nematodes extracted and counted. Additionally, 15 commercial rabbiteye plantings were sampled. Standard and southern highbush samples had total plant parasitic nematode levels of 228-451 nematodes/250 ml soil compared to 4-14 nematodes/250 ml soil for rabbiteye. No difference in nematode population was found among the standard highbush ('Bluecrop') and southern highbush ('Cooper', 'Gulfcoast') cultivars. Xiphinema americanum was the most common nematode species found, along with very small populations of Paratrichodorus minor. All commercial plantings had lower nematode levels in samples from the blueberry plants as compared to those from the sod middles between the rows. Nematode levels from commercial plantings ranged from 1477/250ml soil from blueberry plants and 11-1546/250 ml soil from the sod middles. Species found at high levels in the sod samples were usually distinctly different from those found associated with the blueberry plants.

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Lisa W. DeVetter, Chris Benedict and Inga A. Zasada

ubiquitous plant-parasitic nematode in the region. This nematode has a wide host range, including red raspberry and many common cover crop species, and it is thought to be a major contributor to red raspberry crop decline ( McElroy, 1977 ; Pinkerton et al

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Cody L. Smith, Joshua H. Freeman, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle and William P. Wechter

Though little published data have been collected, it is commonly accepted that damage caused by soil-borne pathogens, such as FON and plant parasitic nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.), has increased since the phase-out of methyl bromide. The ban on

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D. Grant McCarty II, Sarah E. Eichler Inwood, Bonnie H. Ownley, Carl E. Sams, Annette L. Wszelaki and David M. Butler

comparable crop yields and control of soilborne plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes, and weeds could be achieved. The use of ASD is one non-chemical approach that has shown promise in Japan, The Netherlands, Florida, and California ( Butler et al

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Anthony M. Ortiz, Brent S. Sipes, Susan C. Miyasaka and Alton S. Arakaki

through several possible mechanisms: 1) non-host or poor host status for plant–parasitic nematodes; 2) production of phytochemicals that are toxic and/or antagonistic toward pathogens; and 3) stimulation of antagonists of plant–parasitic nematodes

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Francesco Di Gioia, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Jason Hong, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Joseph Albano, Xin Zhao, Zack Black, Zhifeng Gao, Chris Wilson, John Thomas, Kelly Moore, Marilyn Swisher, Haichao Guo and Erin N. Rosskopf

disinfestation” ( Shinmura et al., 1999 ), is considered as one of the most promising methods. Anaerobic soil disinfestation has proved to be effective against several soilborne fungal and bacterial plant diseases, and plant-parasitic nematodes and weeds, across

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Sally M. Schneider, Husein A. Ajwa, Thomas J. Trout and Suduan Gao

cool soils. Results presented here demonstrated that drip-irrigation technologies to deliver emulsified formulations of fumigants is promising for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. This technology has been successfully adopted by over 50% of

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W.L. Mountain, C.A. Powell and L.B. Forer

A trough system was developed to study rates of plant virus transmission by plant parasitic nematodes. Perforated plumber's polyvinyl chloride pipe, 5 cm in diameter, was cut into 48-cm lengths, split longitudinally, and fashioned into troughs to hold soil and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Webber) transplants. The first plant in each trough was infected with tomato ringspot virus (TmRSV), followed by 10 uninfected plants spaced at 4-cm intervals. The soil contained a high concentration of Xiphinema rivesi (199 per 100 cm3), a low concentration (16 per 100 cm3), or none. Plants were assayed biweekly for TmRSV. After 42 weeks, transmission rates between the low and high concentrations of nematodes were not significantly different. The subirrigated trough system provided excellent soil conditions for plant growth and sufficient nematode survival to detect virus transmission through 36 weeks.

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J.B. Hartman, D. Vuylsteke, D. Makumbi, R.N. Ssebulibe and D.A. Karamura

The East African highland bananas are a sub-group of the Musa AAA group and are unique to the mid-altitude and highlands of Eastern Africa. In much of the area where they are grown, highland bananas are the main staple crop for both rural and urban populations. Yields of highland bananas have fallen precipitously in many areas and production deficits have been met by shifting highland banana production into new areas. Yield reductions have been attributed to a number of factors, including plant parasitic nematodes, the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus), and black Sigatoka leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis). A program to breed improved highland bananas was established at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture's Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Center (IITA-ESARC) in collaboration with the National Banana Program of Uganda in 1994. Following preliminary studies of fertility, breeding began in 1997. The breeding program has taken as its model IITA's successful plantain-breeding program. The plantain-breeding program has used an ideotype breeding approach to selection of improved plantain hybrids. The unique features, culture, and end-use of highland bananas have necessitated the definition of a new ideotype. Results of studies during the past 2 years have identified traits unique to highland bananas and a highland banana ideotype has emerged.