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Graham H. Barry, William S. Castle, and Frederick S. Davies

Citrus rootstocks have well-known effects on tree size, crop load, fruit size, and various fruit quality factors. Fruit from trees budded on invigorating rootstocks are generally larger with lower soluble solids concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity compared to fruit from trees budded on less invigorating rootstocks. Although it is unclear how rootstocks exert their influence on juice quality of Citrus L. species, plant water relations are thought to play a central role. In addition, the larger fruit size associated with invigorating rootstocks and the inverse relationship between SSC and fruit size implies that fruit borne on trees on invigorating rootstocks have lower SSC due to dilution effects in larger fruit. To determine how rootstock type affects sugar accumulation in fruit of Citrus species, controlled water-deficit stress was applied to mature `Valencia' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] or rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) rootstocks. Withholding water from the root zone of citrus trees during stage II of fruit development decreased midday stem water potential and increased the concentrations of primary osmotica, fructose and glucose. Sucrose concentration was not affected, suggesting that sucrose hydrolysis took place. Increased concentrations of sugars and SSC in fruit from moderately water-stressed trees occurred independently of fruit size and juice content. Thus, passive dehydration of juice sacs, and concentration of soluble solids, was not the primary cause of differences in sugar accumulation. Controlled water-deficit stress caused active osmotic adjustment in fruit of `Valencia' sweet orange. However, when water-deficit stress was applied later in fruit development (e.g., stage III) there was no increase in sugars or SSC. The evidence presented supports the hypothesis that differential sugar accumulation of citrus fruit from trees on rootstocks of contrasting vigor and, hence, plant water relations, is caused by differences in tree water status and the enhancement of sucrose hydrolysis into component hexose sugars resulting in osmotic adjustment. Therefore, inherent rootstock differences affecting plant water relations are proposed as a primary cause of differences in sugar accumulation and SSC among citrus rootstocks.

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D. Michael Glenn, Nicola Cooley, Rob Walker, Peter Clingeleffer, and Krista Shellie

(PD) irrigation with and without particle film treatments (PFT) in ‘Viognier’ and ‘Merlot’ grown in Parma, ID. Plant water relations and water use efficiency. Diurnal leaf surface temperature was also more influenced by irrigation regime

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Jerriann Ernstsen, Larry Rupp, and Ray Brown

Typically, dormant seedlings are transplanted when revegetating disturbed lands to prevent transplant shock triggered by water stress. It may be possible to transplant nondormant seedlings by inducing drought-tolerant acclimation responses such as solute accumulation. Artemisia cana and Agropyron intermedium seedlings were subjected to three different water stress preconditioning treatments. After conditioning, seedlings were dried down in their containers until leaf senescence, or were transplanted to disturbed land sites. Leaf water potential components and relative water content were measured. Following treatments, water relations parameters of preconditioned seedlings were not markedly different from controls in either species. At the end of the final dry-down, water stress preconditioning had not induced active or passive solute accumulation, prolonged leaf survival during lethal drought conditions, or differences in transplant survival under the experimental conditions of this study.

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Jeffrey Melkonian and David W. Wolfe

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Marketmore 80) plants were exposed to a soil water deficit and subsequently rewatered. Maximum stress intensity was -1.5 MPa midday leaf water potential compared to -0.6 to -0.8 MPa in the well watered control, eight days after withholding water. Midday stomatal conductance {ks), leaf turgor potential and water potential decreased in the stress treatment compared to the control beginning at the first sampling, two days after withholding water. The decrease in all three was approximately linear with time over the stress. Decreased leaf elongation was observed at the second sampling, three days after the initial decline in ks and five days after withholding water. At similar relative water content {RWC), osmotic potentials of the stress and control treatments were the same throughout most of the stress. Further, there was no difference in osmotic potential, at the same RWC, between the stress and control treatments 12 - 16 hours after rewatering. Split-root experiments were also conducted to examine a possible role of a non-hydraulic signal from roots in drying soil in the regulation of ks and leaf elongation in cucumber. No conclusive evidence of a signal was found despite significant decreases in soil water potential of one-half of the root system of the stress plants. However, fluctuating vapor pressure gradients (vpg) may have obscured evidence of a signal.

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R.B. Hutmacher, J.J. Steiner, J.E. Ayars, A.B. Mantel, and S.S. Vail

The influence of irrigation frequency and the severity and rate of development of soil water deficits on the vegetative growth and water status of carrots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.) grown for seed were investigated in a fine sandy loam soil. Beginning with the period of rapid development of primary umbels, various irrigation frequencies [daily vs. intervals corresponding to 30 mm of accumulated crop evapotranspiration (ETc)] were investigated at irrigation rates ranging from 40% to 120% of estimated ETC. The magnitude and rate of development of soil water deficits markedly influenced carrot responses to developing water deficits. Stomata] conductance and leaf water potential (LWP) measurements exhibited some potential for use in irrigation scheduling and were the most sensitive and consistent indicators of plant water status. Under low-frequency continuous-deficit irrigation, a combination of moderate reductions in stomatal conductance and major reductions in peak leaf area and late-season maintenance of viable leaf area occurred. These responses were effective water-conserving mechanisms, allowing growth at a reduced rate and continued development of viable seed. In contrast, rapid development of soil water deficits resulted in nearly complete stomatal closure, cessation of growth, and rapid reductions in leaf area.

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Denise Neilsen, Gerry Neilsen, Sunghee Guak, and Tom Forge

Uncertain water supplies resulting from changing climatic conditions in western North America led to this investigation of the role of crop load reduction in maintaining performance of high-density ‘Ambrosia’ apple (Malus ×domestica) on M.9 rootstock. A split-plot experimental design was imposed for three growing seasons (2007–09) with six replicates of four main plot irrigation treatments and three crop load subplots comprised of three trees. Four season-long irrigation (Irr) treatments were applied through 2 × 4 L·h−1 drip emitters per tree and included Irr1) control [100% evapotranspiration (ET) replacement], Irr2) 50% ET replacement, Irr3) 50% ET replacement to half the emitters, and Irr4) an increasingly severe treatment commencing at 50% ET replacement (once every 2 days) in 2007 and progressing to 25% and 18% ET replacement, 2008–09. Three target crop loads were established annually, 4–5 weeks after bloom as low (2.5, 3, and 3.75), medium (4.5, 6, and 7.5), and high (9, 12, and 15) fruit/cm2 trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) 2007–09, respectively, by hand thinning around 4 weeks after bloom. Volumetric soil moisture contents generally reflected the amount of water applied and ranged from 20% for control (Irr1) to <10% for Irr4. Both irrigation and crop load treatments affected midday stem water potential more than leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance (g S). By the 2nd and 3rd year stem potential values for irrigation treatments ranged from a maximum of −1.0 to −1.3 MPa for Irr1 to minimums ≤-2.0 MPa for Irr4. g S decreased as midday stem potential decreased, but at any given stem potential value was greater at high crop loads, presumably in response to an increased demand for photosynthates. Fruit size decreased as crop load increased, but as irrigation deficits became more severe, fruit size was more closely correlated with stem water potential than g S. Consequently, fruit size was controlled by two mechanisms, competition for photosynthates and the effects of plant water status on g S. Negative linear relationships between crop load and average fruit size were used to determine the crop load required to produce an average fruit size of 200 g at different irrigation deficits. It was not possible to achieve adequate fruit size when applications were very low, as at 18% to 25% ET in Irr4. Crop load reduction around mid-June had no negative consequences for fruit quality, enhancing fruit color, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) and did not affect the incidence of sunburn, internal breakdown or bitter pit at harvest.

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John E. Jordan, Richard H. White, James C. Thomas, Trent C. Hale, and Donald M. Vietor

Proper water management is a major responsibility of managers of creeping bentgrass grown on putting greens in the hot and humid southern states. The combination of shallow root systems, sand-based root zones, high temperatures, and high evaporative demands frequently results in severe drought stress on bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) greens. This study was initiated to determine the effects of irrigation frequency on creeping bentgrass turgor pressure and on the O2 and CO2 concentrations in a sand-based root zone mixture. In total, 81 plots, 1.5 × 1.5 m each, were established on a USGA-type root zone mixture and organized into 9 groups of 9 plots each. Each group could be irrigated individually. One plot in each group was planted to either `A-4', `Crenshaw', `Mariner', `L-93', or `Penncross' creeping bentgrass. Irrigation frequency treatments of 1-, 2-, and 4-day replacement of historical PET were imposed on three groups each. After establishment, measurements of the leaf water potential, osmotic potential, soil oxygen concentration, and soil carbon dioxide concentrations were made over a 1- to 2-year period. Bentgrass irrigated every 1 or 2 days had significantly (P = 0.05) greater turgor pressures at 0600 hr as compared to turf irrigated every 4 days in 1997. No differences were seen in 1998 due to drier environmental conditions. Concentrations of O2 and CO2 in the soil air remained in the optimal range for all treatments, indicating that lack of O2 in the root zone as a result of frequent irrigation may not be the primary cause for reduced rooting depth of bentgrass grown on highly permeable sand-based root zone mixtures.

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Nauja Lisa Jensen, Christian R. Jensen, Fulai Liu, and Karen K. Petersen

potentials ( Liu et al., 2007 ). To optimize irrigation strategies for strawberries, it is important to know how different irrigation strategies influence physiological reactions (i.e., plant–water relations), stomatal conductance ( g s ), and chemical

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Timothy M. Spann and Holly A. Little

responses may have been the result of changes in the compounds mentioned or others with known effects on plant water relations. Seaweed extracts may be a viable approach for maintaining the growth of citrus nursery trees grown in greenhouse conditions under

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Alberto Pardossi and Luca Incrocci

et al., 2008 ; Stanghellini et al., 2003 ), as it will be discussed in detail later in this article. The progress in plant physiology research has allowed the design of innovative IS methods based on the monitoring of plant water relations. Water