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Dennis J. Werner and Dana F. Moxley

The relationship between malate dehydrogenase (MDH) genotype and plant vigor in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] was examined in two F2 populations (selfed `Belle of Georgia' and `Cresthaven') segregating at the Mdhl locus. Total numbers of progeny examined were 1610 and 998 in the `Belle of Georgia' and `Cresthaven' populations, respectively. In both populations, plant vigor (as defined by total height and trunk caliper after 1 year of growth) was significantly less in homozygous F/F (Mdh1-1/Mdh1-1) individuals. Homozygous S/S (Mdh1-2/Mdh1-2) individuals showed the greatest vigor, and were significantly different in vigor from homozygous F/F (Mdh1-1/Mdh1-1) individuals in both populations and from heterozygous F/S (Mdh1-1/Mdh1-2) individuals in the `Belle of Georgia' population. A significant deviation from the expected 1 F/F:2 F/S:1 S/S ratio was observed in the `Belle of Georgia' population, suggesting moderate lethality of homozygous F/F genotypes.

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Dennis J. Werner and Dana F. Moxley

The relationship between malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isozyme genotype and plant vigor in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] was examined in two F2 populations (selfed `Belle of Georgia' and `Cresthaven') segregating at the Mdh1 locus. Total progeny examined were 1610 and 998 in the `Belle of Georgia' and `Cresthaven' populations, respectively. In both populations, plant vigor (as defined by total height and trunk caliper after 1 year of growth) was significantly less in Mdh1-1/Mdh1-1 homozygotes. Homozygous Mdh1-2/Mdh1-2 individuals showed the greatest vigor, and were significantly different in vigor from Mdh1-1/Mdh1-1 homozygotes in both populations and from Mdh1-1/Mdh1-2 heterozygotes in the `Belle of Georgia' population. A significant deviation from the expected 1 Mdh1-1/Mdh1-1: 2 Mdh1-1/Mdh1-1: 1 Mdh1-2/Mdh1-2 ratio was observed in the `Belle of Georgia' population, suggesting moderate lethality of homozygous Mdh1-1/Mdh1-1 genotypes.

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Johan Desaeger and Alex Csinos

The effects of drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of vegetable seedlings were investigated in three separate tests in Tifton, Ga. Tests were conducted in Spring 2002, Fall 2002, and Spring 2003. Phytotoxicity of 1,3-D + chloropicrin was induced in the 2002 tests by applying progressively higher rates (0 to 374 L·ha–1) of drip-irrigated InLine (an emulsifiable formulation (EC) containing 60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% chloropicrin) and planting vegetable seedlings within four days after application. Vegetables evaluated were tomato, pepper and cucumber (Spring 2002), and tomato and squash (Fall 2002). In Spring 2003, the effects of 1,3-D formulation (InLine versus Telone EC, an EC containing 94% 1,3-D), plastic mulch type [low density polyethylene (LDPE) versus virtually impermeable film (VIF)] and drip tape configuration (one versus two drip tapes) on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of tomato were investigated. Tomato was planted after the recommended 3-week waiting period. Fumigant concentrations in soil were measured using Gastec detection tubes at 1 to 4 days after drip fumigation in all three tests. Measured fumigant soil gas concentrations were correlated with fumigant application rates in Spring 2002, but not in Fall 2002. Vegetables were visibly affected by residual fumigant levels in the soil and showed symptoms such as leaf chlorosis (cucumber, squash and pepper), leaf bronzing (tomato) and stem browning and stunting (all crops). Fumigant soil air levels were negatively and linearly correlated with different plant growth parameters, in particular plant vigor. The cucurbit crops showed an immediate response and high mortality within 1 week after planting. Surviving plants recovered well in fall. The solanaceous crops showed a more delayed response and lower mortality rates. However, phytotoxic effects with tomato and pepper were more persistent and plants did not seem to recover with time. Overall, fumigant residue levels and potential phytotoxicity were greater in spring than in fall. Greater fumigant soil concentrations were measured under VIF as compared to LDPE plastic mulch. The effect of drip-tape configuration varied with the type of plastic mulch that was used. The double-tape treatment resulted in lower fumigant levels at the bed center under LDPE mulch, and higher fumigant levels at the bed shoulder under VIF mulch. The formulation containing 94% 1,3-D resulted in higher soil fumigant levels as compared to the formulation containing 61% 1,3-D and 33% chloropicrin, especially with VIF mulch. Early plant vigor of tomato was negatively correlated with fumigant soil gas levels, and was especially poor following drip fumigation with 94% 1,3-D under VIF mulch.

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David R. Bryla, Robert G. Linderman, and Wei Q. Yang

Fifty-five commercial blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fields were sampled in northwest Oregon in 2001 to determine the incidence of Phytophthora and Pythium root rot pathogens and identify cultural factors that increase the probability of developing infection. Phytophthora was detected in 24% and Pythium was detected in 85% of the fields sampled. The only species of Phytophthora identified in the study was P. cinnamomi. Root infection by P. cinnamomi was significantly related to cultivar with incidence observed more frequently than expected in ‘Duke’ and ‘Bluecrop’. Both blueberry cultivars are two of the most popular grown in the region, representing 42% of the fields in this survey and ≈46% of the total area planted in Oregon. Two other cultivars found infected by P. cinnamomi were ‘Rubel’ and ‘Briggitta Blue’, together accounting for an additional 24% of the fields surveyed. Phytophthora was not detected in fields planted with ‘Berkeley’, ‘Bluejay’, ‘Bluetta’, ‘Darrow’, ‘Earliblue’, ‘Elliott’, and ‘Powderblue’, each of which represented only 2% to 7% of the fields surveyed. Pythium spp. were identified to genus only, but one or more species of Pythium was found in all 11 cultivars included in the survey. Occurrence of either Phytophthora or Pythium was unrelated to soil type, planting age, or cultural practices such as bed type, cover crop, mulch, irrigation system, fertilizer application, fungicide use, or the source of plant material used in the fields. Overall, most fields with Phytophthora or Pythium remained largely symptomless under good soil drainage conditions and had similar levels of vigor as those without the pathogens.

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Anas Eranthodi, Mohammad Babadoost, and Bernhard Trierweiler

-seated pathogens in the seed without significant losses of seed germination or plant vigor. Lear and Lider (1959) recommended eradication of root-knot nematodes from grapevine rootings by hot water treatment. Herder and Turechek (2006) reported eradication of

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Thibault Nordey, Elias Shem, and Joel Huat

differences in plant vigor (i.e., fresh biomass), plant height, and the number of leaves. The hydraulic conductivity of xylem vessels in the stem was also measured to explain variations in plant vigor. Materials and Methods Plant materials Seedlings of tomato

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Stanisław Pluta, Edward Żurawicz, Marcin Studnicki, and Wiesław Mądry

total yield of each plant. The data for these traits were collected at various stages and times: early spring (March to mid-April)—shoot thorniness; spring (end of April to May)—plant vigor and plant habit; summer (June to July)—fruit yield, fruit weight

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James P. Gilreath, Bielinski M. Santos, and Timothy N. Motis

the nematodes were separated and counted from 100 mL soil using a standard sieving and centrifugation procedure ( Jenkins, 1964 ). At both locations, strawberry plant vigor was estimated at 8 and 13 WAT. Plant vigor was determined using a scale from 0

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A.L. Shober, K.A. Moore, C. Wiese, S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, and M. Paz

zones 8b and 9a, and from every 4 d to every 2 d in zone 10b could improve plant vigor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of these irrigation frequency recommendations on plant vigor, canopy growth, root growth, and aesthetic

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Travis L. Stegmeir, Chad E. Finn, Ryan M. Warner, and James F. Hancock

block for each genotype. Overall plant vigor was estimated on a 1 to 7 (least to most vigorous) scale based on plot fill and individual plant vigor. During the 2008 fruiting season (9 June to 17 July), the plots were assessed approximately every 5 d