Pistachio (Pistacia vera) was successfully introduced into California and initially touted as a tree nut crop with no disease or insect pests. Unfortunately, these expectations were dashed as a number of diseases and pests followed commercial plantings, making plant protection practices integral to production. Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae) devastated early plantings but is now controlled with the use of resistant rootstocks. Botryosphaeria blight (Botryosphaeria dothidea) and alternaria late blight (Alternaria alternata) are recently arrived foliar fungal diseases that blight fruit clusters and defoliate trees, respectively, and multiple fungicide applications are needed for control. The conversion to low volume irrigation systems, specifically to drip or buried drip, has reduced disease. Pruning out botryosphaeria blight infections has reduced overwintering inoculum and disease, while current research aims at accurately predicting infection events to increase fungicide efficacy. A number of hemipteran insect pests have been associated with epicarp lesion: spring treatments have been replaced with dormant carbaryl and oil applications which are less toxic to beneficial insects while controlling phytocoris (Phytocoris californicus and P. relativus) and soft scale pests. Early season insect damage can be tolerated because trees compensate by maturing a higher percentage of remaining fruit kernels. Some mirid (Calocoris spp.) pests can be effectively reduced by eliminating alternate hosts in an effective weed control program. If lygus (Lygus hesperus) populations are present, weeds should not be disturbed from bloom until shell hardening to prevent movement by insects into the trees where feeding can result in epicarp lesion. Stink bugs (Pentatomidae) and leaffooted bugs (Leptoglossus clypealis and L. occidentalis) can penetrate the hardened shell and cause internal nut necrosis along with epicarp lesion. Trap crops are used to monitor pest populations in order to develop treatment thresholds. Degree-day based timing of treatments increase insecticide efficacy for the control of navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristonuera rosaceana), but navel orangeworm populations are more effectively managed by destroying unharvested over wintering fruit. Bacillus thuriengiensis sprays, liquid-lime-sulfur, and biological control show promise in controlling obliquebanded leafroller.
Almond, [Prunus dulcis (synonym Prunus amygdalus)] planted on approximately 595,000 acres (240,797 ha), is California's largest acreage tree crop. California's Central Valley accounts for nearly 100% of the U.S. domestic production of almonds. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that integrate cultural practices and pest and disease monitoring with selective controls have improved plant protection in almond. Methods of orchard floor management and their effects must also be taken into account. Minimizing dust reduces mites while harvesting earlier and the destruction of overwintering refugia are cultural practices that reduce worm damage. Improved methods for field sampling and monitoring have reduced the need for pesticide applications while improving timing and effectiveness of needed crop protection sprays. Selective controls have further reduced the impact on nontarget species. Augmentative parasite releases have also helped manage navel orangeworm (Ameylois transitella). Effective use of new selective fungicides will require precise application timing and greater knowledge of diseases and resistance management. A better understanding of disease life cycles leading to improved monitoring of the fungal diseases, shothole (Wilsonomyces carpophilus), almond scab (Cladosporium carpophilum), and anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) have reduced fungicide applications. Future challenges include the potential loss of effective pest control products, the need to continually develop improved utilization strategies, and maintaining economic sustainability.
the European Union and the United States, many chemical pesticides have been taken off the market because of stricter environmental and public health regulations. Therefore, there is an increased need for alternative plant protection materials
‘Jackpot’ tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were grown in 6 plant protection systems with or without black polyethylene mulch. Mulching increased early and total yield of large and marketable fruit and increased total yield of cull fruit. Row covers reduced early yield of large fruit and average large fruit weight. Use of large transplants from 7.5-cm square peat pots tended to increase early marketable yield but decreased early and total average large fruit weight as compared to performance without a plant protection system.
to 6650 L·ha −1 ) and pressure (5000 kPa and more) are needed for good plant protection ( Braekman and Sonck, 2008 ; Goossens et al., 2004 ), but new surveys ( Braekman and Sonck, 2008 ; Vissers, 2005 ) have shown that growers still encounter
use high-pressure spray equipment (i.e., spray guns or lances) to apply plant protection products, although spray boom equipment is becoming increasingly popular. A survey carried out in 2007 among growers of ornamental plants confirms this and
English walnut (Juglans regia) producers in California compete with many insect and disease pests to produce an acceptable crop. Traditional control strategies work reasonably well for most pests. However, environmental concerns, loss of certain pesticides and new or impending regulations threaten the use of many traditional techniques for control of many of the pests. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa), and walnut aphid (Chromaphis juglandicola) are the major insects that affect California walnut production. Control strategies that use integrated pest management programs, beneficial insects, mating disruption, insect growth regulators, improved monitoring techniques and precise treatment timing based on the insect's life cycle are leading edge techniques currently available for insect control in walnuts. Major diseases include walnut blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis), crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and crown and root rot (Phytophthora spp). Both copper resistant and copper sensitive strains of the walnut blight bacterium are best controlled with combinations of copper bactericides and maneb instead of copper materials alone. A new computer model, Xanthocast, used to forecast the need for walnut blight treatment is under evaluation. Crown gall is managed using a preplant biological control agent and a heat treatment to eradicate existing galls. Phytophthora crown and root rot is dealt with primarily by site selection, irrigation management and rootstock selection.
control, or the use of natural enemies, affords greenhouse producers an alternative plant-protection strategy to regulate fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. The common biological control agents used against fungus gnat larvae in
; Lindquist, 1994 ). However, the use of natural enemies or biological control agents, including entomopathogenic nematodes (e.g., Steinernema feltiae ), predatory rove beetles, or both, is another plant-protection strategy that can be implemented to regulate
The traditional use of polyols as osmotica in plant culture media is based on the assumption that polyols are not taken up or metabolized by cells. In reality, polyols are significant photosynthetic products and efficiently utilized metabolites in a large number of plants. In addition to these metabolic roles, initial interest in polyols focused primarily on their function as osmoprotectants. This was hypothesized to be due to their ability to act as compatible solutes. More recent research, however, indicates much broader roles for polyols in stress responses based on their significant antioxidant capacity. These include protection against salt and photooxidative stress as well as a potential role in plant pathogen interactions.