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Christopher J. Currey, Diane M. Camberato, Ariana P. Torres, and Roberto G. Lopez

A common cultural practice in greenhouse production is to apply plant growth retardants (PGRs) to produce uniform, compact, and marketable plants. Plant growth retardants can be applied in several ways, including foliar sprays, substrate drenches

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Josh B. Henry, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker

, diameter, and dry weight, where GI = [height + (diameter 1 + diameter 2)/2 + dry weight]/3. Models represent plants grown with or without a plant growth retardant (PGR) drench of 4 mg (1.4 × 10 −4 oz) a.i. paclobutrazol per pot. The intersection of the two

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Peter Alem, Paul A. Thomas, and Marc W. van Iersel

conditions such as temperature and light levels ( Moe et al., 1992b ). Fig. 1. Poinsettia ‘Classic Red’ height response to plant growth retardant (PGR) applications (spray with a mixture of daminozide and chlormequat chloride or drench with paclobutrazol) and

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

growth retardants are frequently used in bedding-plant production to restrict growth of plants, as they can be easily applied without adversely affecting other crops in the same environment. Plant growth retardants are often applied as foliar sprays, but

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M.W. Duck, B.M. Cregg, R.T. Fernandez, R.D. Heins, and F.F. Cardoso

Tabletop Christmas tree growers whose greenhouse-grown conifers have undesirable shoot growth may alleviate this problem by applying plant growth retardants (PGRs). Some of the most common PGRs in the horticulture industry were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in controlling plant height: ancymidol at 100 μL·L-1 (ppm), daminozide at 5000 μL·L-1, paclobutrazol at 60 μL·L-1, chlormequat at 1500 μL·L-1, uniconazole at 15 μL·L-1, and ethephon at 500 μL·L-1 compared to a nontreated control. The following conifer species were used: colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens), black hills spruce (P. glauca var. densata), serbian spruce (P. omorika), noble fir (Abies procera), grand fir (A. grandis), fraser fir (A. fraseri), concolor fir (A. concolor), arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis), port orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), and douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Chlormequat was the only PGR that caused phytotoxicity and damage to the foliage was minimal. Noble fir, douglas-fir, colorado blue spruce, and arborvitae were unaffected by any PGR treatment. Daminozide reduced growth of port orford cedar and concolor fir; uniconazole reduced growth of black hills spruce and serbian spruce; paclobutrazol reduced growth of fraser fir; and ethephon reduced growth of grand fir.

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Douglas A. Bailey and Bernadette Clark

Summer spray applications of 5000 ppm daminozide (1× or 2×), 62 ppm paclobutrazol (1× or 2×), or 5 ppm uniconazole (1× or 2×) were applied to seven cultivars (Böttstein, Enziandom, Kasteln, Mathilde Gütges, Merritt's Supreme, Red Star, and Schenkenburg) of florists' hydrangea [Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. macrophylla var. macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser.] to evaluate cultivar response to plant growth retardants (PGRs). Both daminozide treatments and the 2× uniconazole treatment effectively reduced plant height for all cultivars during the summer growth period; cultivars varied in response to the paclobutrazol treatments and the 1× uniconazole treatment. Daminozide and uniconazole treatments resulted in less elongation than all other treatments during forcing for most cultivars tested. Paclobutrazol treatments had no residual effect on shoot elongation during forcing of the cultivars tested. The 2× treatments of all PGRs decreased inflorescence diameter of some of the cultivars tested compared with nonsprayed controls. Results from this study indicate that 1) summer application of PGRs can have a residual effect on plant height and inflorescence diameter of hydrangeas during the spring greenhouse forcing phase; and 2) hydrangea cultivars differ significantly in response to the PGRs tested. Therefore, the need for height control during the spring forcing period of hydrangeas will vary with cultivar, and it will depend on how plants were treated the previous summer growing season. We recommend that producers of dormant hydrangeas provide records of their summer height control program to forcers so that height control programs during spring forcing can be adjusted appropriately.

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Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, Mary Reitmeier, Barbara B. Stewart, and William B. Miller

We evaluated preplant bulb dips in three commercial plant growth retardants [ancymidol (A-Rest), paclobutrazol (Bonzi), and uniconazole (Sumagic)] for height control in seven oriental hybrid lily (Lilium) cultivars (Aubade, Berlin, Casa Blanca, Muscadet, Sissi, Star Gazer, and Tom Pouce), and seven LA-hybrid lily [hybrids resulting from crosses between easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) and Asiatic hybrids] cultivars (Aladdin's Dazzle, Best Seller, Cebeco Dazzle, Royal Dream, Royal Parade, Royal Perfume, and Salmon Classic) grown in containers. A 1-min dip into a range of concentrations of each product was used to determine the optimum concentrations for height control. The results indicate that bulb dips, especially with uniconazole and paclobutrazol, can be a highly effective means of height control in hybrid lilies. Cultivars varied in their response to growth retardant treatments. In general, LA-hybrid lilies were much more responsive to the growth retardant treatments than oriental hybrids and required lower rates for comparable height control. Delays in flowering, increased bud abortion and leaf yellowing were observed only with high concentrations of uniconazole or paclobutrazol where the height reduction was also too excessive for a commercially acceptable crop.

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Chun Ho Pak, Seung Won Kang, and Chiwon W. Lee

Efficacy of application methods and concentration of plant growth retardants on growth of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum cv. Cheasepeake) was tested. B-9 or cycocel (CCC) as a growth retardant was applied as drench or subapplication with nutrient solution. In the case of B-9 drench treatments, as B-9 concentrations increased, numbers of flowers and flower buds increased except in the 1500-ppm treatment. Increasing concentration of CCC also resulted in reduction of flower numbers, total plant height, total leaf area, branch number, and fresh weight. Reduction ratio of total plant height in 2000 ppm showed about 56.9% being compared to that of the 100-ppm drench treatment. B-9 or CCC, combined with nutrient solution, was also supplied from the C-channel subirrigation system. The B-9 subapplication treatment showed no significance among these concentrations, but flower numbers, total plant height, average plant height, and leaf numbers decreased as concentrations of CCC increased. B-9 or CCC with the same concentration was drenched after 2 weeks of the first experiment to compare planting time efficacy. Measured data increased until B-9 increased up to 2500 ppm and severe growth retardation resulted from the 5000-ppm treatment. Through this growth retardant application study, the combination of drenching concentration and period of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may result in effective growth retardation and reduction of application concentrations for pot plant production.

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Janni Bjerregaard Lund, Theo J. Blom, and Jesper Mazanti Aaslyng

One of the environmental concerns in the production of potted plants is the use of plant growth retardants (PGRs) for the control of plant height. In the search for alternatives to PGRs, changes in light quality [e.g., increased red to far

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J. Raymond Kessler Jr. and Gary J. Keever

Vegetative offsets of Achillea x `Coronation Gold' were rooted under mist for 3 weeks and potted into 10-cm pots in a greenhouse. Plants were grown under short photoperiods for 6 weeks before being vernalized for 6 weeks at 6 °C. Plants then were provided long photoperiods from night-break lighting. Foliar sprays of daminozide at 0, 2550, 5100, or 7650 mg·L-1, chlormequat at 0, 767, 1534, or 3201 mg·L-1, daminozide + chlormequat at 0, 1275 +, 2550 + or 3825+1534 mg·L-1, flurprimidol at 0, 40, 80, or 120 mg·L-1, paclobutrazol at 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, or 160 mg·L-1 or uniconizole at 0, 11, 22, 33, 44, or 55 mg·L-1 were applied as a spray 1 week after vernalization. Highest market quality ratings were achieved with paclobutrazol at 96 or 128, uniconizole at 22 or 33, daminozide + chlormequat 3825 + 1534, chlormequat at 2301 or flurprimidol at 40 mg·L-1. Peduncle length and growth index decreased linearly for daminozide, chlormequat, and daminozide + chlormequat, and decreased quadratically for flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconizole with increasing rate. Time to flower increased most in treatments receiving high rates of daminozide. Flower diameter was reduced by the highest rates of flurprimidol and paclobutrazol.