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Wallace G. Pill, Thomas A. Evans, Michael W. Olszewski, Robert P. Mulrooney, and Walter E. Kee Jr.

'Maffei 15' baby lima bean seeds were sown every 6 cm in rows 76 cm apart to yield a nominal stand of 215,000 plants/ha at two locations in Delaware over 2 years. Seedlings were thinned within 2 weeks of planting to provide 0%, 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50.0% stand reduction at two in-row spacing patterns to determine subsequent effects on vegetative and reproductive growth. Shoot fresh weight per square meter was decreased only in 2003 by 21% and bean fresh weight per square meter was decreased only in 2004 by 13.8% when plant stand decreased to 50%. This disproportional vegetative and reproductive growth response to stand reduction resulted from a compensatory linear increase in shoot fresh weight, usable pod number, and bean fresh weight of individual plants. Thus, 'Maffei 15' lima bean tolerates a considerable loss of plant stand with little or no effect on yield.

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

rainfall during the growing season ( Stoddard et al., 2013 ). The use of irrigation would not only maximize plant stand and storage root yield, but also allow transplants that have been held for long periods of time to have the ability to survive and

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Salvador Vitanza, Celeste Welty, Mark Bennett, Sally Miller, and Richard Derksen

The impact of pesticide application technology and crop stand density on bell pepper production was evaluated in a series of field trials, during 2004 and 2005, at the North Central Agricultural Research Station, Fremont, Ohio. In 2004, one trial tested three sprayers, at a speed of 8 and 4 mph, using insecticides at half the recommended rate and one treatment at full rate. Sprayers evaluated included an air-assisted electrostatic sprayer, a Cagle sprayer equipped with AI-11005 or AI-110025 nozzles, and an air-blast sprayer with XR-1003-VS or XR-110015-VS nozzles. In 2005, one experiment tested the interaction of two application technologies, three planting distances within row, and single vs. twin rows. Another experiment compared the Cagle sprayer (with TJ60-11003 or AI-110025 nozzles) and the airblast sprayer (with XR-110015-VS nozzles), at a speed of 4 mph, and insecticides at half the recommended rate. In 2004, the Cagle sprayer with air-induction nozzle, half rate, at 8 mph obtained the highest fruit yield. There was not significant improvement in European corn borer control by applying insecticides at full rate with the Cagle sprayer and all treatments achieved significantly better bacterial soft rot control than the untreated control. In 2005, the trials were terminated early due to crop destruction by Phytophthora capsici. Red fruit weighed less at high than at medium or low plant stand densities. Clean yield of red fruit was significantly greater in single rows than in twin rows. Marketable yield of green fruit was greater using the TJ60-11003 than using the AI-110025 nozzles.

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki and John R. Teasdale

A 3-year study was conducted at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Md., to evaluate plant stand, growth, and yield of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars Carlo and Matador grown with conventional tillage (CT) or with no-tillage hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch. Plant stand and dry mass of both cultivars in CT were similar to those in no-till HV. However, leaf area and yield with no-till HV were significantly higher than those with CT.

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Joseph Aguyoh, Henry G. Taber, and Vince Lawson

Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) growers in the upper midwestern U.S. have used clear plastic mulch to improve early yield and advance crop maturity. Results of this practice have been inconsistent because of early season temperature variability and inadequate information on cultivar adaptation. Our objective was to improve the performance consistency by investigating earliness techniques with the early, sugary-enhancer (se) cultivar Temptation planted at two sites. Treatments were bare soil or clear plastic mulch, rowcovers or none, and direct-seeded or transplanted plants. Transplants were produced in the greenhouse in either 50-cell plastic trays or peat pot strips, 2.3 inches × 4.0 inches deep (6 × 10 cm) and were evaluated according to transplant age and cell size. In the cold springs of 1996 and 1997, the use of clear plastic mulch shortened maturity of sweet corn by 1 and 10 days, respectively, for the silt loam site; but no maturity advantage was observed for the loamy sand site. Clear plastic raised the minimum soil temperature by 3.8 to 4.0 °F (2.1 to 2.2 °C) at both sites. The 2-week-old 50-cell tray transplants matured 6 days earlier than the peat pot strip transplants or direct seeded at both locations in 1997. Marketable yield from the transplants was inconsistent by location and year. Four-week-old transplants did not withstand field stress and performed poorly regardless of type of container. Ear quality as indicated by row number, ear diameter, ear length, and tipfill was lowest with transplants.

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

some knowledge about the transplant size that should be used to maximize plant stands, but documentation as to the interaction of preplant irrigation, transplant size, and planting depth and their resulting effect on plant survival and storage root

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Shengrui Yao, James J. Luby, and David K. Wildung

berries. Each year, plant stand (percent leaf coverage for the designated area for each plot) was visually estimated in the fall before mulching and in the summer during picking season ( Luby et al., 2001 , 2003 ). Plants were renovated through flame

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George E. Boyhan, Juan Carlos Diaz-Perez, Chris Hopkins, Reid L. Torrance, and C. Randy Hill

report plant stand and the in-row spacing as the percentage below 4 inches and above 6.5 inches. Seedstems were recorded for a 50-ft section of row on 14 May 2002 among onions remaining in the field. In the second year (2002), coated onion seeds were sown

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Toshio Shibuya, Ryosuke Endo, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Mizuki Tsuchida

; Franklin, 2008 ; Smith and Whitelam, 1997 ) and by the reflected FR light from neighboring plants ( Ballaré et al., 1987 , 1990 ). This competition can benefit dense plant stands in natural ecosystems by producing more uniform plants stands with an

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Susan L.F. Meyer, Inga A. Zasada, Shannon M. Rupprecht, Mark J. VanGessel, Cerruti R.R. Hooks, Matthew J. Morra, and Kathryne L. Everts

Weeks 0 or 1. Treatments affecting plant stand at Week 0 were 3 YeM:1 InM (60% of plants dying), 1 YeM:1 InM (40% of plants dying), YeM (40% of plants dying, 10% dead), and linseed meal, no tarp (20% dead or dying). Treatments affecting plant stand at