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Naveen Hyder, James J. Sims and Stephen N. Wegulo

resource ( Masago et al., 1977 ; Meerow, 1994 ; Prasad, 1997 ). It has been demonstrated that coir can suppress certain soilborne plant pathogens ( Candole and Evans, 2004 ; van der Gaag and Wever, 2005 ). Combining the disease-suppressive properties of

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Diane Feliciano Cayanan, Ping Zhang, Weizhong Liu, Mike Dixon and Youbin Zheng

irrigation water and leachate into a reservoir until the water is needed again for irrigation. However, the risk of spreading plant pathogens found in recycled irrigation water is a deterrent for many operations ( Bush, 2002 ; Bush et al., 2003 ; Ehret et

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Xiuling Tian and Youbin Zheng

-borne plant pathogens within the recirculation system ( Richard et al., 2006 ). Various water disinfection technologies have been used in controlled environment plant production systems including greenhouse and nursery operations. However, these technologies

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Clive Kaiser, Philip B. Hamm, Stacy Gieck, Nicholas David, Lynn Long, Mekjell Meland and J. Mark Christensen

based on taxonomic diversity within the ascomycetes and oomycetes as well as economic importance as plant pathogens in the Pacific Northwest. For this study, Helminthosporium solani , Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi race 2, Colletotricum coccodes

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Diane Feliciano Cayanan, Mike Dixon, Youbin Zheng and Jennifer Llewellyn

, 2005 ; Hong et al., 2003 ). This practice generally involves collecting excess irrigation water and leachate in a reservoir such as a pond for subsequent irrigation. However, recycling of the water may disperse plant pathogens into crops through the

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Garrett A. Ridge, Natasha L. Bell, Andrew J. Gitto, Steven N. Jeffers and Sarah A. White

infection of crops by plant pathogens present in recycled water ( Hong and Moorman, 2005 ; Hong et al., 2014 ; White et al., 2013 ). Numerous studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between irrigating plants with plant pathogen–contaminated water

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Michael G. Bausher

the early fall and spring in Florida of greater than 30 °C are not uncommon. Relative to TSWV, ToMV is a very persistent plant pathogen because both rootstock and scion seeds can be a source of infection. Serial movement of tobamoviruses by grafting

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Peter L. Sholberg, Paul Randall and Cheryl R. Hampson

Acetic acid (AA) fumigation of rootstocks and dormant shoots was explored as a method of eliminating plant pathogens from propagation material. Dormant shoots were tested in early winter to determine the rate of AA vapor that they could tolerate before being damaged. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca), apple (Malus ×domestica), and peach (Prunus persica) shoots collected from a single site in Dec. 1999 tolerated 30, 12, or 6 mg·L–1 AA, respectively. Vineland 3 (V3) and Malling-Merton 106 (MM.106) rootstock liners fumigated with 1 mg·L–1 AA were adequately surface-sterilized although the effect on growth was not recorded. A similar experiment with Malling 9 (M9) rootstocks showed that 12 mg·L–1 AA would eliminate most surface microorganisims from roots although it delayed shoot growth when the trees were planted. The higher 15 mg·L–1 rate delayed tree growth and appeared to kill some trees. The 12 mg·L–1 rate prevented growth of Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae bacteria on shoots even when an enrichment technique was used to detect them. Finally, when 96 `Jonagold' apple shoots known to be infected by Podosphaera leucotricha were fumigated with AA in 2001, none developed powdery mildew, although 99% of the control shoots did. These promising results suggest that further research should be done toward adapting AA fumigation for use by commercial nurseries.

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Sarah A. White

developed to help growers reduce inputs of water and agrichemical in their operations, remediate agrichemical and plant pathogen contaminants from production runoff with the ultimate goal of increasing adoption of water recycling practices at specialty

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Annamarie Pennucci

Four novel and five commonly occurring diseases of ornamental nursery stock were evaluated for patterns of dissemination and rapidity of movement within a commercial nursery. Newly acquired but infected nursery stock provided a readily available inoculum source. Dissemination, pathogen movement, and disease development were positively correlated to minimal plant proximities, overhead irrigation, and communal root or soil environments. Water containment and recycling systems allowed movement of waterborne pathogens between plants on the same bench, in the same row, or on contiguous sheets of plastic or landscape fabric. Diseased plants located above uninfected stock or upstream or inside overhead irrigation systems provided a source for rapid aerial spread of conidia. Detached diseased plant parts provided rapid physical movement of pathogens and disease developed despite applications of fungicides. Exclusion of diseased plant materials accompanied by rigorous sanitation offer important means of limiting pathogen movement within the nursery.