. The relative abundances of Mycoarthris , Chaetomium , and Acidibacter showed weaker relations with the plant morphology of G. longituba . Among the twenty microbial communities, five genera were selected as the main explanatory parameters for the
Li Liu, Lin Jin, and Qiaosheng Guo
James R. Cooksey, Brian A. Kahn, and James E. Motes
Nontreated seed, primed seed, and transplants were compared for effects on stand establishment, plant morphology, and yield of paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Nontreated seed was satisfactory for stand establishment, although primed seed had the potential to provide greater initial stands. When populations were made equal by thinning, there were few differences in stem and leaf dry weight, fruit yield, or plant morphology attributed to seed treatment. Generally, morphology of plants established by direct seeding was favorable for mechanical harvest. Using transplants did not result in higher marketable fruit yields than direct seeding in 2 of 3 years. When compared to plants established by direct seeding, three trends were consistent across all 3 years for plants established by transplanting: 1) they were more massive, 2) they had larger vertical fruiting planes, and 3) they had more branches. These traits increase the difficulty of mechanical harvest and create the potential for more leaves and stems (trash) in the harvested product. Thus, transplanting is not recommended for stand establishment of paprika pepper intended for mechanical harvest.
Julia Reekie*, Peter Hicklenton, John Duval, Craig Chandler, and Paul Struik
Our previous work on modifying strawberry plant morphology used either mowing to remove the leaf laminas and part of the petioles on `Camarosa', or a new reduced-risk gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, Prohexadione-Ca (ProCa), to restrict cell elongation in `Sweet Charlie'. These early studies showed promising results in acheiving desirable plant size and increasing fruit yield in annual hill plasticulture. Therefore, in the growing seasons of 2001 and 2002, we used `Camarosa' to explore the possibility of combining mowing and ProCa as a means of modifying strawberry transplant morphology in the nurseries, and studied its effect on fruit production in annual hill plasticulture. Plants were mowed and treated with 62.5 μL·L-1 of ProCa in a nursery field in Nova Scotia (45°26'N, 63°27'W). Treatments consisted of either mowing, the application of ProCa, or a combination of mowing and ProCa on one of two dates, 5 or 19 Sept. ProCa application early in the growing season had increased the production of daughter plants in the nursery. All plants were harvested in early October, and immediately transplanted in Dover, Fla. (28°00'N, 82°22'W). Fruits were collected twice weekly from late November to February or March. At time of harvest, both mowing and ProCa reduced plant height and total leaf area; plants which were treated with ProCa and mowed were the shortest. On average, treated plants had higher fruit yield as compared to untreated plants. In 2001, early fruit production in December was increased significantly in treated plants.
Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang
). Therefore, the light conditions in a PFAL can be controlled precisely to meet the needs of plants. Compared with light quantity and light period, light quality has much more complex effects on plant morphology and physiology ( Folta and Carvalho, 2015 ; Xu
M. G. Karlsson, J. W. Werner, and H.C.H. McIntyre
The effect of temperature during the initial long day period on morphology and plant dry weight was determined for Begonia × hiemalis `Hilda'. Multistem cuttings were planted in 10 cm pots and grown at 13°, 16°, 19°, 22°, 25° or 28°C. The day length was 16 hours at an irradiance level of 280 ± 20 μmol·m-2s-1. After 21 days, the plants were moved to a greenhouse maintained at 20° ± 2°C and short days of 10 hours at 125 ± 20 μmol·m-2s-1. The plants were grown under short days for 14 days and then moved to a day length of 16 hours. At data collection 21 days later (56 days from planting), plant height averaged 185 mm for plants initially grown at 13°, 16°, 19° or 22°C while pants originally grown at 25° and 28°C were 40 and 78 mm shorter than plants started at lower temperatures. The mean number of shoots was 4 on plants exposed to 16°, 19°, 22° or 25°C during early development and decrease to 3 shoots for plants grown initially at 13° or 28°C. The average flower number on the main shoot was similar for plants first exposed to low and intermediate temperatures but decreased rapidly to 0 for plants with early exposure to 28°C. Plants in treatments with early temperatures of 19° or 22°C had the largest above ground dry weight at an average 460 mg.
Eric B. Bish, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Craig K. Chandler
Containerized strawberry transplants offer an alternative to problematic bare-root transplants, which often have variability in flowering and vegetative vigor. Containerized transplants were propagated in three different container cell sizes (75, 150, and 300 cm3) and grown at two different temperature regimes for 2 weeks prior to planting (25/15 and 35/25°C day/night). Bare-root transplants from Massachusetts and Florida were graded into small, medium, and large plants based on crown size (8, 12, and 16 mm respectively). Plug transplants grown at 25/15°C had greater root dry weights than transplants grown at 35/25°C. Root imaging analysis (MacRHIZO) showed that the differences in dry weight were due to root area, not root tissue density. Crown dry weight increased with increasing cell size. Plug transplants grown at 25/15°C flowered earlier and had greater production than any other treatment. The 75 cm3 cell size grown at 35/25°C produced greater December strawberry production than larger cell sizes at the same temperature regime; however, the 75 cm3 cell size had decreased January strawberry production while the larger cell sizes had increased production. Larger plug cell sizes had significantly greater production than smaller plugs throughout the season, whereas larger bare-roots had greater production only early in the season. Containerized plug transplants therefore offers a viable alternative to problematic bare-root transplants.
John Frett, W. Edward Kee, and Stephen Redcay
Lima bean yields are lower in Delaware than in other lima-bean-producing states. One of the factors that contributes to the low production is the high temperatures that occur during production. Six commercial varieties of lima beans, both fordhook and baby lima bean types, were grown in a glass greenhouse at either 25C or 35C daytime temperatures to screen for heat tolerance. Plants grown at high temperature were typically shorter and more bushy than plants grown at 25C. Few, if any, buds, flowers, or early pods remained on plants at harvest if the plants were grown at 25C, while plants grown at 35C were still producing buds and flowers. Lima bean yields were generally reduced at 35C. The magnitude of the effect on yield ranged from `F1072', which had a 100-fold decrease in yield, to `Early Thorogreen', which demonstrated a slight increase in yield in response to increased temperatures.
Joseph J. King and Dennis P. Stimart
In an attempt to analyze genetically the interaction of endogenous auxin concentration and adventitious root formation, an EMS mutagenized M2 population of Arabidopsis thaliana was screened for mutants with altered abilities to form adventitious roots. A selected recessive nuclear mutant, rooty (rty), is characterized by extreme proliferation of roots, inhibition of shoot development and other morphological alterations suggestive of auxin or ethylene effects. The rty phenotype occurs in wild type seedlings grown on auxin containing medium and relatively normal growth is stimulated in rty seedlings growing on cytokinin containing medium. Analysis by GC-MS found that endogenous IAA concentrations in rty are 2 to 17 times higher than in wild type depending on tissue type and IAA form. Dose response experiments with IAA and NAA indicated that rty does not express increased sensitivity to auxin. These data suggest that the rty phenotype is due to elevated endogenous auxin. A genetic map location for rty and possible roles for the wild type RTY gene product in regulating auxin concentration will be presented.
R. Grube* and R. Aburomia
A low to moderate incidence of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor is commonly observed in commercial lettuce fields of all types of lettuce (e.g. crisphead, romaine, leaf, butter) and although partial resistance has been reported, no sources of immunity have been described. We sought to determine whether there was variability between different types of lettuce and among cultivars within types. Replicated experiments were conducted in an infested field using established inoculation procedures. Significant variation in susceptibility to S. minor was detected among cultivars within as well as between major lettuce types. Correlations between lettuce drop susceptibility and plant canopy size, seedling vigor, and additional morphological traits were determined. Variability between different field experiments was also evaluated for several traits and a subset of cultivars. Our results suggest that cultivated germplasm may provide genes that are as useful or more useful than those found in genotypes with more primitive growth habits in developing cultivars with tolerance to lettuce drop.
Pedro Revilla and W.F. Tracy
Sweet corn is one of the most important vegetable crops in the United States, however the morphology and phylogeny of open-pollinated sweet corn cultivars has not been studied. Fifty eight open-pollinated sweet corn cultivars were characterized with thirty-four descriptors to provide information for breeders interested in broadening the genetic base of sweet corn. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed to classify sweet corn cultivars based on morphology. Also, relationships among morphological variables in this set of cultivars were determined. The general ordination of cultivars followed an axis representing earliness, and plant, leaf, and tassel size, while ear and kernel attributes were less variable. The morphological variability among all of the widely used sweet corn cultivars, except `Country Gentleman', was not greater than the variability found among the `Golden Bantam' strains. Based on morphology, 52 of the cultivars could be considered as one race, which we propose be called `Northeastern Sweets'. These may be a subset of the race `Northern Flint'. Five of the remaining cultivars are from the north-central or southwestern United States and may represent races from those areas. The sixth cultivar is `Country Gentleman', a commercially important sweet corn cultivar. Due to the importance of `Country Gentleman' and the introgression of nonsweet germplasm into modern sweet corn, we believe that sweet corn should be defined based on its use as a vegetable and on the presence of one or more genes that increase sugar levels in the endosperm.