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William M. Randle

An interactive computer-based model has been developed to simulate the effects of precision planting onion on quality and yield. Variables used by the model are seed germination, plant survival, planter efficiency, onion growth potential, maximum onion size, sizing potential and inside-outside bed effects. Data bases obtained from 3 onion cultivars were used in the development of the model. The model shows when germination and plant survival are high, single seed drops by the planter results in high yield and large bulbs. At lower germination and survival values, however, a compromise is needed between maximizing yield and obtaining large bulbs.

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Grace M. Pietsch, William H. Carlson, Royal D. Heins, and James E. Faust

The effects of day and night temperatures (15 to 35C) and three irradiance levels [50% of ambient, ambient, and ambient plus 12 mol·m-2·day-1 of supplemental photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)] on development of Catharanthus roseus `Grape Cooler' were determined. Time to flower decreased by 30 days and leaf-pair unfolding rate (LUR) increased linearly as average daily temperature increased from 18 to 35C. Flower size was greatest when plants were grown at 25C. Supplemental light decreased days to flower and increased flower size. Flowering occurred when nine leaf pairs were present on the plant. Using the inverse of the LUR curve, i.e., days per leaf pair, the number of days to flower could be predicted at any time during plant development based on plant leaf number.

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Priscila L. Gratão, Carolina C. Monteiro, Lázaro E.P. Peres, and Ricardo Antunes Azevedo

plant model and may be used to better understand these defense mechanisms. After 104 d of development, ‘Micro-Tom’ plants exhibited some distinct activity patterns for the enzymes tested. Of all the tissues analyzed, the stem was shown to contain the

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David Kohanbash, George Kantor, Todd Martin, and Lauren Crawford

, water savings, and plant models. The grower tool also monitors the current data for sending out user-defined alerts via e-mail or SMS text messaging as necessary. The grower tool software uses Rake and Ruby ( Ruby, 1995 ; Ruby on Rails [RoR], 2003

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I.L. Goldman

Plant breeding is a process that is difficult to compress into laboratory exercises for the classroom. At the heart of plant breeding is the act of selection, a process whereby differential reproduction and survival leads to changes in gene frequency. Given the relatively short span of an academic semester, it has been difficult for students to gain experience with the practice of selection using plant materials. Nearly 15 years ago, P.H. Williams developed Wisconsin Fast Plants, a model system for teaching plant biology in a classroom setting. Wisconsin fast plants are rapid-cycling versions of various Brassica species amenable to a variety of genetic studies due to their short life cycle and ease of handling. This paper describes the development of a model system using Brassica rapa L. fast plants for teaching the cyclical selection process known as recurrent selection in the context of a course on plant breeding. The system allows for up to three cycles of recurrent selection during a single 15-week semester and enables students to gain experience in planting, selection, pollination, and seed harvest during each cycle. With appropriate trait choice, phenotypic changes resulting from selection can be visualized after just three cycles. Using the Fast Plant model, recurrent selection can be practiced successfully by students in the classroom.

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Raquel L. Boscariol, Mariza Monteiro, Elizabete K. Takahashi, Sabrina M. Chabregas, Maria Lucia C. Vieira, Luiz G.E. Vieira, Luiz F.P. Pereira, Francisco de A.A. Mourão Filho, Suane C. Cardoso, Rock S.C. Christiano, Armando Bergamin Filho, Janaynna M. Barbosa, Fernando A. Azevedo, and Beatriz M.J. Mendes

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr and Garces pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al., is one of the main problems affecting citrus production. In order to obtain resistance to phytopathogenic bacteria, insect genes, coding for antimicrobial proteins, have been used in plant genetic transformation. In this study, transgenic Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. `Hamlin' plants expressing the antimicrobial insect-derived attacin A gene (attA) were obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Towns.) Conn-mediated transformation. Initially, the cDNA clone was used to construct a binary plasmid vector (pCattA 2300). The construction included the native signal peptide (SP) responsible for directing the insect protein to the extracellular space where bacteria is supposed to accumulate in vivo. In order to investigate the native SP effectiveness in a plant model system, onion (Allium cepa L.) epidermal cells were transformed, via biobalistics, using plasmids containing the attA gene with or without SP, fused with the green fluorescent protein gene (pattA 1303 and pSPattA 1303). Fluorescence accumulation surrounding the cells was observed only in tissues transformed with the plasmid containing the gene with SP, indicating the protein secretion to the apoplast. Citrus transformation was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization analysis in 12 regenerated plants. Transcription of attA gene was detected by Northern blot analysis in all transgenic plants. Eight selected transgenic lines were propagated and inoculated with a 106 cfu/mL suspension of the pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri. Compared to control (non-transformed plant), seven transgenic lines showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to citrus canker. The results obtained here indicate the potential use of antibacterial proteins to protect citrus from bacterial diseases.

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Suat Irmak, D.Z. Haman, A. Irmak, J.W. Jones, B. Tonkinson, D. Burch, T.H. Yeager, and C. Larsen

This research study evaluates the effectiveness of a recently introduced irrigation-plant production system, multipot box system (MPBS), for moderating root zone temperature (RZT) compared with the conventional nursery containers. The study also deals with the development, calibration, and validation of a series of models that can be used to predict maximum (max) and minimum (min) RZTs using commonly available input variables. The Viburnum odoratissimum (Ker.-gawl.) was used as the test plant. Models were calibrated in the fall growing season and validated during the summer. The RZT was used as the dependent variable while the max and min air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) and/or incoming solar radiation (Rs) were used as independent variables. The color of the MPBS had an effect on plant growth. Plants grown in the white MPBS had higher growth indices, shoot and root dry weights, and number of stems as compared with the plants in the black MPBS or the conventional (control) system (CS). White MPBS maintained cooler RZTs than the max air temperature during both seasons. Also, white MPBS maintained cooler RZTs than the black MPBS and CS during the two seasons. In both seasons, water temperature in the black MPBS was higher than the temperature in the white MPBS contributing to the high RZTs in the black MPBS. The RZT of the black MPBS and CS exceeded the critical value (40 °C), which is cited in the literatures as negatively impacting root growth, water and nutrient uptake, leaf area, plant survival, root and shoot dry weights, water status, and photosynthesis. The RZT in the CS was above 45 °C for most of the summer season and plants were exposed to this extreme temperature for a few hours a day during most of the summer. The white MPBS provided a better environment and enhanced plant growth. For regions where ambient air temperature ranged from 2 to 41 °C, the white MPBS can provide adequate and effective RZT protection for plants grown in No. 1, 3.8-L standard black conventional containers. Predicted RZT values were well correlated with measured values in all systems. Rs did not have an effect on predicting RZTmax in the MPBS treatments. Wind speed did not contribute to predicting RZT in any production systems. The root mean square error between measured and predicted RZT was relatively low ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 °C. Models were able to explain at least 74% of the variability in RZTs using only Tmax, Tmin, and/or Rs. Models developed in this study should be applicable for estimating RZTs when similar management and cultural practices are present. Models of this study are practical, simple, and applicable to predict RZTs where ambient air temperature ranges from 1.9 to 40 °C. Model results should not be extrapolated beyond these limits.

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Gerardo Lopez, Romeo R. Favreau, Colin Smith, and Theodore M. DeJong

important to understand the dynamic feedback between carbon allocation and tree architecture. This can be obtained with the construction of a functional–structural plant model ( Marcelis and Heuvelink, 2007 ; Vos et al., 2007 ). Recent advances in computer

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Jianyu Chen, Keith A. Funnell, and Ed R. Morgan

also physiologically logical. Limitation of pre-planting and post-planting models. It has been well established that temperature and photoperiod significantly influence time to flower in a range of plants ( Funnell, 2008 ; Karlsson, 2002

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight

of young foliage plants modeled as a 12-week crop in a gutter-connected, rounded-arch greenhouse without a ridge vent, and covered with double-layer polyethylene and having stationary benches (System A). Fig. 2. Variable costs for production