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Jyotsna Joshi, Geng Zhang, Shanqi Shen, Kanyaratt Supaibulwatana, Chihiro K.A. Watanabe and Wataru Yamori

Plant factories with artificial lighting” are a new type of facility that can produce high yield with high quality all year round in a controlled environment (e.g., lighting, temperature, CO 2 concentration, and nutrients) ( Kozai, 2013a ; Yamori

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Hsing-Ying Chung, Ming-Yih Chang, Chia-Chyi Wu and Wei Fang

The issue of food safety has gained attention in recent years. Currently, climate change is a major concern, and it is increasingly difficult to cultivate healthy and safe agricultural products in the field ( Sazvar et al., 2018 ). Plant factories

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Yu-Wei Liu and Chen-Kang Huang

become an increasingly important issue in recent years, and plant factories are considered possible solutions to food crop cultivation problems. In addition, the cultivation of fresh vegetables in dry climate areas or nonseasonal vegetables has become

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Kun Li, Qi-Chang Yang, Yu-Xin Tong and Ruifeng Cheng

Plant factories with artificial lighting are widely used in many areas ( Hahn et al., 1996 ; Ikeda et al., 1992 ; Ioslovich and Gutman, 2000 ; Kato et al., 2010 ; McAvoy et al., 1989 ; Morimoto et al., 1995 ) as an ideal model for precision

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Kyung-Hwan Yeo*, Jung-Min Son and Yong-Beom Lee

Plant factory is a new plant production system that enables high quality, year-round, and planned production by controlling the environment. However, the recirculation of the nutrient solution leads to several problems because of unstable condition by nutrient uptake. The concentrations of nutrients in the recirculating solution should be kept at the required levels, since an optimum nutrition is determined by the specific concentrations of an element and mutual ratio to other nutrients in the root zone. Consequently, the nutrient solution is required adjustments based on regular analysis of the drain water and relationships among nutrient uptake, growth stage, and environmental factors for plant quality. This study was conducted to examine the effect of mineral nutritional control by five different methods on growth and photosynthesis of single-stemmed rose `Red velvet' and `Vital' in a plant factory. The nutritional control of nutrient solution was as following: the control of electrical conductivity (EC), N, P, and K elements (NPK), macro elements (M), macro and micro elements (MM) to target ranges in root environment, and the supplement of nutrient solution (S). The growth of single-node cutting rose `Vital' and `Red velvet' was higher in the M and MM than that of other control systems. Although M and MM system showed no significant difference, the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were higher than those with other systems. The maximal efficiency of photochemistry (Fv/Fm) was higher in the M and MM control system, which showed the highest root activity. These results could be attributable for modelling the mineral nutritional control system, which reduces the use of fertilizers and increases the productivity of single-stemmed rose.

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Kyung-Hwan Yeo*, Jung-Min Son and Yong-Beom Lee

The plant factory to control growing system automatically is necessary to cultivate single-node cutting rose, which produce large numbers of uniform shoots per unit area in short cultivation. However, the recirculation of the nutrient solution in closed system leads to several problems. One of them is connected with the quality of nutrient solution and the supply of minerals. The uptake of specific nutrients depends on growth and development, or plant stage, which results in a shift in ionic ratio in the drainage water compared to the nutrient solution supplied. Consequently, the nutrient supply should be controlled to be equal to the demand of the plant to avoid disorder of nutrient solution, such as depletion or accumulation. Therefore this study was conducted to examine the effect of mineral nutritional control on nutrient uptake of single-node cutting rose `Red velvet' and `Vital' in a plant factory. The nutritional control of nutrient solution was conducted by five methods: the control of electrical conductivity (EC), N, P, and K elements (NPK), macro elements (M), macro and micro elements (MM) to target ranges in root zone, and the supplement of nutrient solution (S). In NPK, M, and MM control system, the input of nutrients was calculated as amounts of absorption by the plants compared to target values in root environment. The fertilizer supplement of N, P, and K was lower in EC control system than other control systems. In EC and S control system, the concentration of NO3 - -N and K in root zone exceed optimal range whereas P, Ca, and Mg decreased at the later stage of growth. The concentrations of each nutrient in root environment were kept at the target ranges in M and MM control system, which showed optimum yield and product quality.

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Ki-Ho Son, Jin-Hui Lee, Youngjae Oh, Daeil Kim, Myung-Min Oh and Byung-Chun In

week for 4 weeks after transplanting. All lettuce plants were grown in a plant factory (4 m L × 2 m W × 3 m H) under controlled environmental conditions (air temperature, 20 °C; RH, 60%; CO 2 concentration, 1000 µmol·mol −1 ; and light period, 12 h

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Yuki Sago

; Saure, 1998 ). The rate of plant growth can be increased by controlling the cultivation environment, and light intensity is an important environmental factor in such stimulation. In a plant factory, which is a closed system equipped with artificial light

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Noriko Ohtake, Masaharu Ishikura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Wataru Yamori and Eiji Goto

Plant factories with artificial lighting have been developed for efficient production of food crops and are now used for the commercial production of leafy greens and herbs in many countries ( Kozai, 2013 ). As the demands for year-round production

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Ryohei Koyama, Hiromichi Itoh, Syuji Kimura, Ai Morioka and Yuichi Uno

plant factory is an efficient and stable system in which plants are cultivated in a controlled environment year-round. The products are chemical-free, fresh, and clean ( Takatsuji, 2010 ). For the success of industries based on hydroponically grown