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Lu Zhang, Robert Howard Beede, Gary Banuelos, Christopher M. Wallis, and Louise Ferguson

Pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) is a deciduous dioecious tree grown commercially in the high desert and Mediterranean climates of Iran, California’s Central Valley, Turkey, Sicily, and Australia. Pistachio is an anemophilous species; air currents

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Dan E. Parfitt, Craig Kallsen, Joseph Maranto, and Brent Holtz

, location, and rootstock. Nut volumes were computed as volume = (π/6) × (length × width × height). Comparisons are made to ‘Kerman’ pistachio, the primary cultivar in California. General linear models analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with MINITAB

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D.E. Parfitt, N. Arjmand, and T.J. Michailides

Pistachio Commission.

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Craig E. Kallsen and Dan E. Parfitt

block trial (three blocks, four to six trees per cultivar/block) established near Buttonwillow CA in 2007. This trial is located near the center of the major U.S. pistachio-growing region. Description Tree. ‘Gumdrop’ is a large, vigorous tree on UCB1

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Riaz Ahmad, Louise Ferguson, and Stephen M. Southwick

The authors wish to thank Bob Klein for providing pistachio samples for DNA analysis in the present project. We are also thankful to Dan Potter and Thomas Chao for critical internal review of the manuscript. We thank the California Pistachio

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Juan J. Polari, Louise Ferguson, and Selina C. Wang

Pistachios are highly appreciated for their nutritional properties. In particular, pistachios’ lipids composition has been linked to their positive effects on human health ( Dreher, 2012 ; Kris-Etherton et al., 2008 ; Lin and Yen, 2010 ; McGuire

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Dan E. Parfitt, Craig E. Kallsen, Brent Holtz, and Joseph Maranto

‘Randy’ is a male pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) released as a pollenizer for female cultivars Golden Hills and Lost Hills. It has flowered well and uniformly during low-chill seasons (less than 800 h) in Kern and Madera Counties, CA. ‘Randy

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Craig E. Kallsen

About 85,000 ha of bearing pistachio ( Pistacia vera L.) were in production in the San Joaquin Valley of California in 2015 ( American Pistachio Growers, 2015 ), of which about 90% were the female cultivar Kerman and male pollinizer ‘Peters

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Brent A. Holtz

Pistachio (Pistacia vera) was successfully introduced into California and initially touted as a tree nut crop with no disease or insect pests. Unfortunately, these expectations were dashed as a number of diseases and pests followed commercial plantings, making plant protection practices integral to production. Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae) devastated early plantings but is now controlled with the use of resistant rootstocks. Botryosphaeria blight (Botryosphaeria dothidea) and alternaria late blight (Alternaria alternata) are recently arrived foliar fungal diseases that blight fruit clusters and defoliate trees, respectively, and multiple fungicide applications are needed for control. The conversion to low volume irrigation systems, specifically to drip or buried drip, has reduced disease. Pruning out botryosphaeria blight infections has reduced overwintering inoculum and disease, while current research aims at accurately predicting infection events to increase fungicide efficacy. A number of hemipteran insect pests have been associated with epicarp lesion: spring treatments have been replaced with dormant carbaryl and oil applications which are less toxic to beneficial insects while controlling phytocoris (Phytocoris californicus and P. relativus) and soft scale pests. Early season insect damage can be tolerated because trees compensate by maturing a higher percentage of remaining fruit kernels. Some mirid (Calocoris spp.) pests can be effectively reduced by eliminating alternate hosts in an effective weed control program. If lygus (Lygus hesperus) populations are present, weeds should not be disturbed from bloom until shell hardening to prevent movement by insects into the trees where feeding can result in epicarp lesion. Stink bugs (Pentatomidae) and leaffooted bugs (Leptoglossus clypealis and L. occidentalis) can penetrate the hardened shell and cause internal nut necrosis along with epicarp lesion. Trap crops are used to monitor pest populations in order to develop treatment thresholds. Degree-day based timing of treatments increase insecticide efficacy for the control of navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristonuera rosaceana), but navel orangeworm populations are more effectively managed by destroying unharvested over wintering fruit. Bacillus thuriengiensis sprays, liquid-lime-sulfur, and biological control show promise in controlling obliquebanded leafroller.

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Chih-Cheng T. Chao, Dan E. Parfitt, and Themis J. Michailides

2 Pomologist. 3 Plant pathologist. This project was supported by a grant from the California Pistachio Commission. The authors also acknowledge assistance of L. Ferguson and F. Swanson for plot maintenance at Kearney Agricultural Center, and A