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Kim E. Hummer

The center of diversity for white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) most likely stretches from central Siberia east of the Ural Mountains to Asia, possibly bounded by the Himalayas to the south. The alternate hosts for WPBR, Asian five-needled pines (Pinus L.) and Ribes L. native to that region have developed WPBR resistance. Because the dispersal of C. ribicola to Europe and North America occurred within the last several hundred years, the North American five-needled white pines, Pinus subsections, Strobus and Parya, had no previous selection pressure to develop resistance. Establishment of WPBR in North American resulted when plants were transported both ways across the Atlantic Ocean. In 1705, Lord Weymouth had white pine (P. strobis L.), also called weymouth pine in Europe, seed and seedlings brought to England. These trees were planted throughout eastern Europe. In the mid-1800s, WPBR outbreaks were reported in Ribes and then in white pines in eastern Europe. The pathogen may have been brought to Europe on an infected pine from Russia. In the late 1800s American nurserymen, unaware of the European rust incidence, imported many infected white pine seedlings from France and Germany for reforestation efforts. By 1914, rust-infected white pine nursery stock was imported into Connecticut, Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin, and in the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia. The range of WPBR is established in eastern North America and the Pacific Northwest. New infection sites in Nevada, South Dakota, New Mexico and Colorado have been observed during the 1990s.

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James E. Altland and Charles R. Krause

Pine bark is the primary component in container nursery substrates, comprising 60% to 80% by volume of most substrate blends. Pine bark is a commodity used by other industries including fuel generation, fiber ( Lu et al., 2006 ), charcoal, landscape

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Anthony L. Witcher, Eugene K. Blythe, Glenn B. Fain and Kenneth J. Curry

pine trees are readily available throughout the southeastern United States and include clean chip residual (bark, limbs, and needles), processed whole pine trees (wood, bark, limbs, and needles), and chipped pine logs (wood and bark). These substrates

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, Jake F. Browder, J. Roger Harris and Alex X. Niemiera

). Of these, research and development of new substrates to replace conventionally used peatmoss and pine bark (PB) substrates have increased in recent years. In addition to developing and using new substrates, much work has focused on managing fertility

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright and John R. Seiler

substrates ( Aaron, 1982 ; Hoitink and Poole, 1979 ). Recently, supplies of pine bark (PB) in many areas across the southeastern states have been erratic. Reduced availability and higher costs have been driven by the reduced supply resulting from decreased

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Todd A. Burnes, Robert A. Blanchette, Jason A. Smith and James J. Luby

can serve as alternate hosts for Cronartium ribicola , the causal agent of white pine blister rust (WPBR). This disease was introduced into North America over 100 years ago and has caused major mortality to native five-needle pines. Once the Ribes

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James E. Altland, James C. Locke and Charles R. Krause

northeastern United States, most nursery substrates are comprised primarily of pine bark (60% to 80% by volume) and sphagnum moss (10% to 30% by volume), with minor additions of other components such as compost, sand, gravel, and humus (personal observation

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Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Jeff L. Sibley and Cheryl R. Boyer

Peat moss and pine bark are the primary components of growth substrates in the production of container-grown herbaceous crops. However, there is concern that the availability of pine bark for horticultural usage might be limited as a result of

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James E. Altland, James S. Owen Jr., Brian E. Jackson and Jeb S. Fields

In the eastern United States, nurseries use either loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) or longleaf pine ( Pinus palustris Mill.) bark as the primary organic component in soilless substrates. Pine bark was initially used as a growing substrate in the

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Cody J. Stewart, S. Christopher Marble, Brian Jackson, Brian J. Pearson, P. Christopher Wilson and Dwight K. Lauer

In the eastern United States, pine bark is the predominate substrate component in outdoor nursery container plant production. Pine bark is a byproduct of the timber industry and is stripped off logs following harvest. Once the removed pine bark is