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Anthony L. Witcher, Eugene K. Blythe, Glenn B. Fain and Kenneth J. Curry

-PM-amended substrates (included PB and WPT), and differences between means for whole pine tree substrates (included WPT and WPT:PM) and PB substrates (included PB and PB:PM). Results and discussion Substrate air space ranged from 16.3% (PB:PM) to 35.5% (PB) in the 2008

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Linda L. Taylor, Alexander X. Niemiera, Robert D. Wright, Gregory K. Evanylo and Wade E. Thomason

peat-based substrates ( Wright and Browder, 2005 ; Wright et al., 2008 ), but nitrification in PTS has not been documented. Pine tree substrate is manufactured from trunks of ≈15-year-old loblolly pine trees ( Pinus taeda L.) by chipping and

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Linda L. Taylor, Alexander X. Niemiera, Robert D. Wright and J. Roger Harris

PTSP pH limed at 4 and 6 kg·m −3 and was similar to pH values of PTS limed at 1 and 2 kg·m −3 and PTSP limed at 4 kg·m −3 . Thus, less lime is required to adjust PTS and PTSP pH compared with lime additions for PL. Table 2. Pine tree substrate (PTS

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Robert D. Wright, Brian E. Jackson, Michael C. Barnes and Jake F. Browder

et al., 1993 ; Hicklenton, 1983 ; Starck and Lukaszuk, 1991 ). More recently, a pine tree substrate has been developed (WoodGro™; WoodGro, Blacksburg, VA) from ground whole loblolly pine logs to successfully produce a wide range of nursery and

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Robert D. Wright, Brian E. Jackson, Jake F. Browder and Joyce G. Latimer

’) could be grown in pine tree substrate (PTS) produced by grinding loblolly pine logs compared with pine bark. There were no toxic nutrient levels associated with the substrate solution for PTS, and the pH was also acceptable for plant culture. This study

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Alexander X. Niemiera, Linda L. Taylor and Jacob H. Shreckhise

Methods Expt. 1 Preparation of substrates. Pine tree substrate was manufactured from ≈15-year-old delimbed loblolly pine trees ( Pinus taeda L.) growing in Blackstone, VA. In Jan. 2011, trees were harvested and subsequently chipped with a Bandit chipper

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, Jake F. Browder, J. Roger Harris and Alex X. Niemiera

.) have also been used to grow a wide range of herbaceous and woody container crops in Canada where sawdust is plentiful ( Maas and Adamson, 1972 ). Laiche and Nash (1986) produced a pine tree substrate (PTS) derived from PB with a considerable

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright and Michael C. Barnes

grown in peat if they were irrigated and fertilized more often than the plants grown in peat. More recently, a pine tree substrate (PTS) derived from delimbed loblolly pine trees and referred to as WoodGro ™ (WoodGro LLC., Blacksburg, VA) was

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright and John R. Seiler

United States to produce a pine tree substrate (PTS) composed of a mixture of PB and fresh loblolly pine wood and a second PTS derived from whole pine trees (needles, limbs, bark, and wood). They reported that plant growth of several woody plants to be

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright and Nazim Gruda

combination with multiple amendments that were applied. Therefore, plant response could not be attributed to (or explained by) the lime addition. The use of pine tree substrates (PTS), which are produced from pine trees that are chipped and ground (with or