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Mark G. Lefsrud, John C. Sorochan, Dean A. Kopsell, and J. Scott McElroy

chlorophylls (Chl)] throughout the growing season ( Su et al., 2007 ; Teuton et al., 2007 ). However, nothing in the literature has been reported on the pigment concentration independent of the stress events and during the stress events. Carotenoids are

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Calen McKenzie, Ivette Guzman, Ciro Velasco-Cruz, and Paul W. Bosland

Chl b—differ slightly in their absorption spectra. Carotenoids are important phytochemical pigments responsible for the color of most yellow, orange, and red fruits and vegetables. They are classified into two groups: carotenes and xanthophylls

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Ryan N. Contreras, John M. Ruter, James S. Owen Jr., and Andy Hoegh

dissipation, and photosynthesis ( Han et al., 2003 ). Japanese-cedar also accumulated substantial levels of xanthophyll cycle pigments and lutein during winter ( Han et al., 2003 ; Han and Mukai, 1999 ). The overarching objective of the current study was to

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Richard D. Richins, Laura Hernandez, Barry Dungan, Shane Hambly, F. Omar Holguin, and Mary A. O'Connell

The red-, orange-, and yellow-pigmented fruit in Capsicum spp. is the result of accumulation of carotenoids, both carotenes and xanthophylls, in the pericarp ( Wall et al., 2001 ). These pigments have beneficial nutritional value as precursors

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Panthip Boonsong, Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, and Frank B. Matta

). Compounds considered harmful include 4-methoxy m-phenylenediamine (4MMPD) or 4-methoxy-m-phenylenediamine sulfate (4MMPD sulfate), two coal-tar ingredients ( Hecht, 1978 ). Currently, there is a popular trend in using pigments and colorants from plant

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Cary Pirone, Jodie V. Johnson, J. Martin E. Quirke, Horacio A. Priestap, and David Lee

remains unchanged years after cell death, a quality that likely contributes to the continued attraction of avian frugivores ( Frost, 1980 ). We recently found the orange tetrapyrrole bilirubin to be the primary pigment in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai

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Dean A. Kopsell, Kimberly J. Whitlock, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

disease reductions, and can provide benefits beyond normal health maintenance ( Shahidi, 2004 ). One such important group of phytochemicals is the tetraterpene carotenoids which function as accessory pigments in photosynthesis and prevent photooxidation in

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Yiguang Wang, Chao Zhang, Bin Dong, Yaohui Huang, Zhiyi Bao, and Hongbo Zhao

ornamental plant tissues such as fruit and flowers. These factors include the composition and chemical structure of pigments, vacuolar pH, cell shape, and environmental factors ( Cooper-Driver, 2001 ). Among these factors, pigment composition and content are

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

). Carotenoids are lipid soluble pigments integrated into light-harvesting complexes that perform physiological roles of photoprotection and light-harvesting ( Croce et al., 1999a , 1999b ). Photoprotection is the prevention of oxidative damage, or

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Ting Lei, Yang Song, Xuehua Jin, Tianyu Su, and Yiwen Pu

coloration is affected by multiple factors such as pigment content and distribution in petals, the pH and metal ions of the pigmented cell sap, and petal epidermal cell structure ( Dao et al., 2016 ; Jin et al., 2016 ; Li et al., 2014 ; Mol et al., 1998