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Cary Pirone, Jodie V. Johnson, J. Martin E. Quirke, Horacio A. Priestap, and David Lee

remains unchanged years after cell death, a quality that likely contributes to the continued attraction of avian frugivores ( Frost, 1980 ). We recently found the orange tetrapyrrole bilirubin to be the primary pigment in the arils of Strelitzia nicolai

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Mark G. Lefsrud, John C. Sorochan, Dean A. Kopsell, and J. Scott McElroy

chlorophylls (Chl)] throughout the growing season ( Su et al., 2007 ; Teuton et al., 2007 ). However, nothing in the literature has been reported on the pigment concentration independent of the stress events and during the stress events. Carotenoids are

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Richard D. Richins, Laura Hernandez, Barry Dungan, Shane Hambly, F. Omar Holguin, and Mary A. O'Connell

The red-, orange-, and yellow-pigmented fruit in Capsicum spp. is the result of accumulation of carotenoids, both carotenes and xanthophylls, in the pericarp ( Wall et al., 2001 ). These pigments have beneficial nutritional value as precursors

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Jianjun Li, Xiaoya Lian, Chenglin Ye, and Lan Wang

affected by the composition and content of pigments in the corolla, physical and chemical properties, pH value in the vacuoles, and the shape of the epidermal cells in the corolla; the main critical factors are pigment composition and content variation

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Panthip Boonsong, Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, and Frank B. Matta

). Compounds considered harmful include 4-methoxy m-phenylenediamine (4MMPD) or 4-methoxy-m-phenylenediamine sulfate (4MMPD sulfate), two coal-tar ingredients ( Hecht, 1978 ). Currently, there is a popular trend in using pigments and colorants from plant

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Dean A. Kopsell, Kimberly J. Whitlock, Carl E. Sams, and David E. Kopsell

disease reductions, and can provide benefits beyond normal health maintenance ( Shahidi, 2004 ). One such important group of phytochemicals is the tetraterpene carotenoids which function as accessory pigments in photosynthesis and prevent photooxidation in

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Yiguang Wang, Chao Zhang, Bin Dong, Yaohui Huang, Zhiyi Bao, and Hongbo Zhao

ornamental plant tissues such as fruit and flowers. These factors include the composition and chemical structure of pigments, vacuolar pH, cell shape, and environmental factors ( Cooper-Driver, 2001 ). Among these factors, pigment composition and content are

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Ying Ma, Xinduo Li, Zhanying Gu, and Jian’an Li

include pigments, antitumor agents, effectors of ecological competition and symbiosis, and molecules of plant chemical defense ( Bartwal et al., 2013 ). Secondary metabolites are generally widely distributed at low concentrations in living organisms

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

). Carotenoids are lipid soluble pigments integrated into light-harvesting complexes that perform physiological roles of photoprotection and light-harvesting ( Croce et al., 1999a , 1999b ). Photoprotection is the prevention of oxidative damage, or

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Xunzhong Zhang, Mike Goatley, Jamie Conner, Megan Wilkins, Inna Teshler, Jun Liu, Michael Fefer, and Wenzi Ckurshumova

defense systems and protecting photosynthetic function, especially under stressful environments ( Zhang and Schmidt, 1999 ). The use of synthetic pigment-containing products on golf-playing surfaces has increased dramatically by golf course superintendents