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Álvaro Fernández-Cuesta, Ossama Kodad, Rafel Socias i Company, and Leonardo Velasco

Phytosterols or plant sterols are natural constituents of plants. They resemble mammalian cholesterol, both in their chemical structure and their biological function ( Piironen et al., 2000 ). Phytosterols regulate the fluidity and permeability of

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Diana M. Cheng, Gad G. Yousef, and Mary Ann Lila

are 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and polypodine B ( Grebenok et al., 1991 , 1994 ). Phytoecdysteroids are polyhydroxylated triterpenoids biosynthesized from phytosterols through the mevalonic acid pathway ( Adler and Grebenok, 1999 ). Although the role of

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Thomas E. Marler and Christopher A. Shaw

.G. Awad, A.B. 2007 Phytosterols as anticancer compounds Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51 161 170 Brenner, E.D. Stevenson, D.W. Twigg, R.W. 2003 Cycads: Evolutionary innovations and the role of plant-derived neurotoxins Trends Plant Sci. 8 446 452 Brough, P. Taylor

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Bruce D. Whitaker

Plastids and microsomal membranes were isolated from pericarp tissue of mature-green and red-ripe bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit harvested from greenhouse- and field-grown plants. The lipid composition of these membrane fractions changed much more with ripening of field-grown than greenhouse-grown fruit. Also, the phospholipid (PL), free sterol (FS), steryl glycoside (SG), and acylated steryl glycoside (ASG) content of microsomes and plastids from green and red fruit were very different under the two growing conditions. Total steryl lipids (TSL = FS + SG + ASG) and the TSL: PL ratio increased in microsomes and decreased in plastids with ripening. These changes were much greater in field-grown fruit. The ASG: SG ratio decreased with ripening in both membrane fractions under both growing conditions. Ripening and growth conditions affected the phospholipid and sterol composition in plastids much more than in microsomes. Lipid changes associated with the chloroplast to chromoplast transformation were similar in field- and greenhouse-grown fruit, including an increase in the galactolipid: PL ratio.

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Shiva Ram Bhandari, Bo-Deul Jung, Hum-Young Baek, and Young-Sang Lee

changes in lipid-soluble phytonutrients such as vitamin E, squalene, phytosterols, and fatty acids, which also carry important health-beneficial properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, tumor proliferative, and cholesterol-lowering effects ( Burton and

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Rafel Socias i Company, Ossama Kodad, José M. Ansón, and José M. Alonso

tocopherols ( Table 3 ) is lower than in other cultivars ( Kodad et al., 2006 ), indicating the need for a rapid processing of kernels after cracking. The level of phytosterols ( Table 4 ) is also low as compared with other cultivars ( Fernández-Cuesta et al

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Carlos Calderón-Vázquez, Mary L. Durbin, Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Livia Tommasini, Kapua K.T. Meyer, and Michael T. Clegg

compounds that are known to confer a health benefit (carotenoids, β-sitosterol, and vitamin E). Avocados are a significant source of dietary phytosterols, in particular β-sitosterol, that has been shown to decrease cholesterol absorption in the intestine

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

94 10367 10372 Hamama, A.A. Bhardwaj, H.L. Starner, D.E. 2003 Genotype and growing location effects on phytosterols in canola J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 80 1121 1126 Kaur, M

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 10367 10372 Hamama, A.A. Bhardwaj, H.L. Starner, D.E. 2003 Genotype and growing location effects on phytosterols in canola J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 80 1121 1126

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

. Africa Praehistorica Hamama, A.A. Bhardwaj, H.L. Starner, D.E. 2003 Genotype and growing location effects on phytosterols in canola oil J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 80 1121 1126 Houck, M.J. 2013 Lablab ( Lablab purpureus ) for conservation use in Louisiana