., 2006 ; Burton and Traber, 1990 ; Guil-Guerrero et al., 2006 ; Khor and Chieng, 1997 ; Manach et al., 2005 ; Marangoni and Poli, 2010 ; Rietjens et al., 2002 ; van Rensburg et al., 2000 ; Zhuang et al., 2012 ). The amounts of these phytonutrient
Shiva Ram Bhandari, Bo-Deul Jung, Hum-Young Baek and Young-Sang Lee
Mustafa Ozgen, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr., Ann M. Chanon, Nithya Janakiraman, R. Neil Reese, A. Raymond Miller and Joseph C. Scheerens
To investigate the variation in the phytonutrients of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), fruit was harvested at the blush (S1), red (S2), and ripe (S3) stages from five genotypes maintained at the Secrest Arboretum, Wooster, Ohio. The S1-S3 samples were characterized for color reflectance and then frozen at –28 °C. After storage, samples were analyzed for dry weight (DW), total soluble solids (TSS), sugars (FRU + GLU), organic acids (ORG), total phenols (PHE), total anthocyanins (ACY), individual anthocyanins (IA), hydroyzable tannins (HT), and antioxidant capacity (FRAP and ABTS). From S1 to S3, DW and TSS increased by 24% and 21%, respectively, and L, hue angle, and chroma values decreased. On a DW basis, all analytical parameters were significantly influenced by genotype and stage. The ACY levels rose 7-fold during ripening, but PHE contents declined by 10%. In ripe fruit, HT comprised the bulk of the PHE constituents, whereas ACY accounted for only 7.6% of PHE levels. Variability among genotypes was moderate for all ripe fruit parameters but ACY. Ripe fruit varied little in color parameters and ACY (fwb) and IA (fwb) were not significantly different among cultivars. The Cy 3-gal and pel 3-gal levels were negatively correlated. Antioxidant capacity declined 16% to 18% during ripening. Ripe fruit FRAP and ABTS values were higher than those reported for most fruits, averaging 596 ± 85 and 629 ± 85 μmol TE eq./gDW, respectively. ABTS and FRAP values were highly correlated with each other and with PHE and HT contents, but were loosely and negatively related to ACY levels. Considering our limited sample size, we concluded that the phytonutrient capacity of cornelian cherry is substantial, predominantly associated with tannins and moderately variable among genotypes.
T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams
evaluated for many years in horticultural crops. However, research in recent years focused on using PGRs to improve fruit quality parameters, such as soluble sugars, fruit color, and phytonutrients ( Buran et al., 2012 ; Gonzalez et al., 2012 ; Gu et al
Angela R. Davis, Charles L. Webber III, Wayne W. Fish, Todd C. Wehner, Stephen King and Penelope Perkins-Veazie
phytonutrients in watermelon. The current study expands on a preliminary trial by Davis et al. (2010) and was designed to measure effects of genotype and environment on L-citrulline accumulation in watermelon. A diverse collection of watermelon germplasm was
Archana P. Pant, Theodore J.K. Radovich, Nguyen V. Hue and Susan C. Miyasaka
effects of concentrations of vermicompost tea on: 1) yield, mineral nutrient concentration, and phytonutrient content of pak choi; and 2) soil biological properties. Materials and Methods Greenhouse experiments Greenhouse experiments were conducted twice
Philipp W. Simon
Service, 2012 ; World Health Organization, 2003 ). The shortfall nutrients noted previously as well as other vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients such as flavonoids and non-provitamin A carotenoids (e.g., lycopene and lutein) ( Murphy et al., 2012 ) and
Mark W. Farnham and Michael A. Grusak
reported. Although many vegetables are consumed in a fresh or fresh frozen state, it is more common to analyze heat-dried tissue samples for minerals or lyophilized tissue samples for various organic phytonutrients. Moisture content may not vary
Fumiomi Takeda, Gene Lester, Craig Chandler, Penny Perkins-Veazie and Ronald Prior
Fresh strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch) are readily available throughout the year with several new cultivars being successfully grown in diverse environmental conditions (e.g., field and greenhouse). Consumption of strawberries with higher nutritive values and antioxidant activity may contribute to improved human wellness. Phytonutrient contents and antioxidant activity was measured as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were assayed in berries (`Camarosa', `Diamante', and `Gaviota') sampled in January, February to March, and April to May from fields in Plant City, Fla., and Oxnard, Calif., and from a greenhouse in Kearneysville, WV. Strawberry cultivars varied in skin color, soluble solids, total phenolics, and anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, folic acid, and ORAC activity. Response to environment was cultivar dependent. All phytonutrient constituents were lower in `Diamante' berries compared to `Camarosa' and `Gaviota'. For all cultivars, berry ORAC activity declined as TSS increased, and ORAC activity was coincident with phenolic content. ORAC activity in berries fruit harvested from plants grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse did not change during the January to May sampling period. For `Gaviota', ORAC activity in greenhouse-produced berries was the same as that of field-produced berries. Whereas greenhouse vs. field-gown `Camarosa' and `Diamante' berries ORAC was higher and lower respectively. These findings demonstrate that the environmental conditions in greenhouses in Kearneysville, W.Va., from winter to spring are adequate for `Camarosa' and `Gaviota' color development, but not for `Diamante' strawberries. Of the three cultivars, only `Camarosa' was highly productive (1.2 kg berries per plant), even in the greenhouse. Berries were high in ascorbic acid, folic acid, phenolic acid, anthocyanins, and ORAC activity.
Plants are the foundation for a significant part of human medicine and for many of the most widely used drugs designed to prevent, treat, and cure disease. Folkloric information concerning traditional remedies for disease has had inestimable value in establishing familial and cultural linkages. During the 20th century, modern medical science in the U.S. and other developed countries ushered in a new era focused on synthetic medicines. Even though many of these compounds were based on natural compounds found in plants, the drive towards synthetic pharmaceuticals created a knowledge gap concerning the health functionality of plants, crops, and food. Paralleling this development, biochemists and nutritional scientists pioneered the discovery of vitamins during the early decades of the 20th century. This research paved the way for dietary guidelines based on empirical data collected from animal feeding trials and set the stage for the current emphasis on phytonutrients. Three primary stages characterize the use of fruits and vegetable in human health. The first stage concerns the observation that many fruit and vegetable crops were originally domesticated for their medicinal properties. Making their way into the diet for this purpose, fruit and vegetable crops remained on the fringe from a culinary point of view. The second stage began when the role of vitamins became more widely understood, and fruit and vegetable plants were quickly recognized as a rich source of certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. At this point, they became more than just an afterthought in the diet of most U.S. citizens. Cartoon icons such as Popeye made the case for the health functionality of leafy greens, while parents schooled their children on the virtues of carrots (Daucus carota), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). This renaissance resulted in large increases in fresh fruit and vegetable consumption across the country, a trend that continues to this day. The third phase can be characterized by the recognition that fruit and vegetable crops contain compounds that have the potential to influence health beyond nutritional value. These so-called functional foods figure prominently in the dietary recommendations developed during the last decades of the 20th century. In recent years, surveys suggest nearly two-thirds of grocery shoppers purchase food specifically to reduce the risk of, or manage a specific health condition. Evidence abounds that consumers, including Baby Boomers, choose foods for specific health benefits, such as the antioxidant potential of vegetables, suggesting high levels of nutritional literacy. Clinical and in vitro data have, to some degree, supported the claims that certain foods have the potential to deter disease, however much research remains to be conducted in order to definitively answer specific dietary-based questions about food and health.
Gene E. Lester and Kevin M. Crosby
Two important chemicals and an essential mineral (phytonutrients) for human health and well-being are ascorbic acid, 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid (folic acid) and potassium. The influence of cultivar, fruit size, soil type and year on these compounds in [Cucumis melo L. (Inodorous Group)] was determined. Fully mature (abscised) commercial size fruit: 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 (fruit/0.031 m3 shipping box) from three commercial cultivars: Mega Brew, Morning Ice, and TAM Dew Improved (TDI); and one experimental hybrid `TDI' × `Green Ice' were grown on both clay loam and sandy loam soils. Total ascorbic acid and folic acid content increased with an increase in fruit size up to a maximum (size 6 or 5), then decreased with further fruit size increase. Total ascorbic acid and folic acid content for most fruit sizes were higher when grown on clay loam versus sandy loam soils. The experimental hybrid compared to the commercial cultivars contained generally higher total ascorbic acid levels and significantly higher folic acid levels regardless of fruit size or soil type. Free ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid contents were generally higher from clay loam versus sandy loam soils and in the experimental line versus the commercial cultivars. However, free ascorbic acid content was high in small fruit and remained unchanged with an increase in fruit size until size 6 or 5 then significantly decreased; while dehydroascorbic acid content linearly increased with an increase in fruit size. Potassium content averaged 1.7 mg·g-1 fresh weight for each line and did not significantly differ due to fruit size, but did for soil type and year. Analyses of variance for the phytonutrients assayed demonstrated that cultivar (genetics) always was very highly significant (P = 0.001), whereas, soil and year (environment) were not.