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Xin Zhao, C.B. Rajashekar, Edward E. Carey, and Weiqun Wang

Demand for organically grown produce is increasing, largely due to concerns of consumers about health and nutrition. Previous studies have not shown a consistent difference of essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, between organic food crops and the conventional counterparts. However, to date, little consideration has been given to phytochemicals, secondary plant metabolites with potential health-promoting properties. We first discuss factors that can infl uence the levels of phytochemicals in crops, and then we critically review the results of published studies that have compared the effects of organic and conventional production systems on phytochemical contents of fruit and vegetables. The evidence overall seems in favor of enhancement of phytochemical content in organically grown produce, but there has been little systematic study of the factors that may contribute to increased phytochemical content in organic crops. It remains to be seen whether consistent differences will be found, and the extent to which biotic and abiotic stresses, and other factors such as soil biology, contribute to those differences. Problems associated with most studies tend to weaken the validity of comparisons. Given the limitations of most published studies, needs for future research are discussed.

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Bo-Ling Liu, Zhi-Bin Fan, Ze-Qun Liu, Xun-Hong Qiu, and Yan-Hong Jiang

, phytochemical compounds extraction, and analysis of total phytochemical compounds. For phytochemical evaluation, shoot and root samples (0.5 g) were collected from plants derived from adventitious small shoots cultured on optimal rooting media after 10 weeks and

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Hanah T. Rheay, Kevin Lombard, Catherine Brewer, and F. Omar Holguin

their hybrids include Amalia, Latir, Medusa (or Multihead), Neo-1, Sabro, and Zappa ( CLS Farms, n.d. ; Jones, 2018 ; Santa Fe Brewing Co., n.d. ). Phytochemicals of interest include bittering acids and essential oils for their brewing properties as

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Myung-Min Oh, Edward E. Carey, and C.B. Rajashekar

benefits in preventing many chronic and degenerative diseases ( Arai et al., 2000 ; Berger, 2005 ; Block et al., 1992 ; Buring and Hennekens, 1997 ). This is because they are rich in numerous phytochemicals, including antioxidants ( DellaPenna, 1999

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Triston Hooks, Genhua Niu, Joe Masabni, Youping Sun, and Girisha Ganjegunte

have a long history of medicinal use and nutritional value ( Teixeira da Silva et al., 2013 ) because they contain bioactive phytochemicals, which have health benefits such as reduced oxidative stress and inflammation ( Gundogdu and Yilmaz, 2012

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M. Joseph Stephens, Jessica Scalzo, Peter A. Alspach, Ron A. Beatson, and Ann Marie Connor

breeding program. Horticultural characters and consumer-driven traits are also important. The health attributes of berries have become important to consumers fueled by research into the benefits of increased consumption of phenolic and phytochemical

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Allan F. Brown, Gad G. Yousef, Ivette Guzman, Kranthi K. Chebrolu, Dennis J. Werner, Mike Parker, Ksenija Gasic, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

absence of individual components of the phytochemical profiles of peach may have greater impact on health than generalized measurements of TAC. Understanding how these individual compounds are accumulated and identifying sources of genetic variation could

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Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David H. Byrne, David W. Ramming, and W.R. Okie

human health. The phytochemicals reported in Prunus L. include carotenoids, anthocyanins, and other phenolics ( Cevallos-Casals et al., 2005 ; Gao and Mazza, 1995 ; Gil et al., 2002 ; Radi et al., 1997 ; Senter and Callahan, 1991 ; Tourjee et al

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Mohammad Majdi, Ghasem Karimzadeh, Mohammad A. Malboobi, Reza Omidbaigi, and Ghader Mirzaghaderi

biomass and to improve medicinal and ornamental characteristics. In the present study, the induction of polyploid on feverfew was examined and morphological, physiological, cytological, and phytochemical characteristics of diploid and induced

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Muttalip Gündoğdu, Tuncay Kan, and Mustafa Kenan Gecer

phytochemicals such as vitamins, carotenoids, and polyphenols, which are the determinants of taste, color, and nutritive values ( Gardner et al., 2000 ; Rice-Evans et al., 1997 ; Vinson et al., 1998 ). The carotenoids are the most widespread group of pigments