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Alison E. Heather, Hector E. Pérez, and Sandra B. Wilson

morphologically dormant. Physiological dormancy is characterized by low growth potential of embryos or the inability of embryos to rupture covering structures such as testa, endosperm, perisperm, and/or pericarp. Combinations of morphological and physiological (i

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Bridget Bolt, Anna Baloh, Roberta Magnani, Marta Nosarzewski, Carlos Rodriguez López, and Robert Geneve

traditional crops, including grapes. There are predictions for dramatic reductions in suitable wine grape acreage in the United States—up to 81% by the late 21st century ( White et al. 2006 ). Grape seeds have physiological dormancy and usually require 3 to

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Dilinuer Shalimu, Ke Li, Carol C. Baskin, Jerry M. Baskin, and Yujun Liu

Pomegranate is an important fruit crop cultivated in many countries, and development of new cultivars depends on the plant breeders being able to produce plants from seeds. Poor quality and low yield of cultivars are widespread problems that greatly restrict development of the pomegranate industry. Our purpose was to gain a better understanding of the seed dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of four cultivars of pomegranate from Xinjiang Province, China, which would be useful in improving old cultivars and developing new ones. Fresh pomegranate seeds incubated on moist filter paper imbibed water, but they germinated to only 16% to 20%. Sulfuric acid scarification, cold stratification, and warm followed by cold stratification significantly increased germination percentages. Seeds soaked in concentrated H2SO4 for 40 minutes followed by cold stratification for 2 months germinated to 65%, and those warm stratified for 1–3 months followed by cold stratification for 2 months germinated to 75% to 80%. Seeds of pomegranate have nondeep physiological dormancy (PD).

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Servet Caliskan, Sharon T. Kester, and Robert L. Geneve

Primary physiological dormancy is a basic concept for courses that emphasize general plant propagation or specific courses in seed biology or technology. Primary seed dormancy is a condition where seeds will not germinate even when the environmental

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Hector E. Pérez

impermeability may be due to multiple layers of tightly spaced, thick-walled cells in the pericarp and testa, the presence of waxes, lignins, and pectins, or a combination of these factors. Seeds with physiological dormancy possess embryos that cannot generate

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Esther E. McGinnis and Mary H. Meyer

et al., 1993 ) or pericarp nicking ( Amen and Bonde, 1964 ). It is unknown whether pennsylvania sedge exhibits physical dormancy or other germination barriers. Physiological dormancy is common in the Cyperaceae and may be overcome or reduced by one or

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Guochen K. Png, Katherine S. Downes, and Beng H. Tan

removal or scarification of the outer layers of the seed and acid scarification ( Baskin and Baskin, 2004 ). Seeds with non-deep physiological dormancy can also be artificially induced to germinate by seedcoat nicking or more naturally through dry

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Orlanda Cristina Barros Moreira, José Martins, Luís Silva, and Mónica Moura

( Moura and Silva, 2010 ). Some prunoid species have fruits with a stony endocarp and embryos with deep physiological dormancy, requiring long periods of cold stratification for dormancy break ( Crocker and Barton, 1931 ; Flemion, 1934 ; Nicolaeva, 1969

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos, and Ruijun Qin

imposes hardships during agronomic production and restoration. Classification systems define five classes of seed dormancy: physiological dormancy (PD), morphological dormancy, morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), physical dormancy (PY), and combinational

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Jia Liu, Tingting Xue, and Yongbao Shen

seeds are light-induced seeds with physiologic dormancy, and their dormancy can be broken by gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), cold stratification, and dry storage ( Liu et al., 2017 ). We have tested the seed germination of three species of Paulownia [empress