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Sin-Ae Park, Candice Shoemaker and Mark Haub

problems are common phenomena among the elderly ( Dustman et al., 1994 ; Katz, 1983 ). Participation in regular physical activity (PA) may reduce and prevent many chronic diseases associated with aging and help maintain independent living ( American

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Sin-Ae Park, Kwan-Suk Lee and Ki-Cheol Son

Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that results in energy expenditure and includes a broad range of daily activities such as housework and walking for transportation ( Caspersen et al., 1985

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Kwan-Suk Lee and Ki-Cheol Son

The MET is a measure of the exercise intensity of physical activity ( Ainsworth et al., 2000 ). One MET is equal to 3.5 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 oxygen and represents the exercise intensity of lying down and meditating ( Ainsworth et al., 2011 ). Values

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Aime J. Sommerfeld, Tina M. Waliczek and Jayne M. Zajicek

). Physical activity is an important factor for healthy lifestyles and overall perceptions of life satisfaction of individuals ( Andersen et al., 2001 ; Bertera, 2003 ; Rossner, 2001 ; Yusuf et al., 1996 ). However, it has been reported that 30% of adults

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Hee-Geun Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Dae-Sik Kim and Wang-Lok Lee

activity has been reported to reduce all-cause mortality ( Faselis et al., 2014 ; Zhao et al., 2015 ) and increase longevity ( Paffenbarger et al., 1993 ). Furthermore, participation in physical activity intervention in particular has been frequently

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Karly S. Geller, Margaret J. Melbye, Richard R. Rosenkranz, Candice Shoemaker and David A. Dzewaltowski

consequence of excessive energy intake and/or insufficient energy expenditure (i.e., energy imbalance), which is largely associated with modifiable behaviors like physical activity ( Janssen et al., 2005 ), screen time ( Sisson et al., 2011 ), and dietary

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Sin-Ae Park, Ho-Sang Lee, Kwan-Suk Lee, Ki-Cheol Son and Candice A. Shoemaker

Physical activity is “bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure” [ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 1996 ]; this definition includes incidental

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Mu-Chuan Lin, Candice Shoemaker* and Nancy Gyurcsik

Older adults are not sufficiently physically active and do not consume sufficient fruits and vegetables to achieve health benefits, such as an improved health-related quality of life (HRQL). As a result, an innovative gardening intervention, comprised of stretching exercises, the teaching of home garden knowledge and skills, and the preparation and taste testing of fruits and vegetables, was developed to target increased: (a) confidence to garden and to consume fruits and vegetables, (b) physical activity, (c) fruit and vegetable consumption, and (d) HRQL. Seven older adults, aged 60 years or older, participated in the gardening intervention and 10 older adults participated in the control group during the fall. Measures of confidence, physical activity (i.e., gardening), fruit and vegetable consumption, and HRQL were obtained at baseline and at the end of the 10-week program. Findings revealed that, at baseline, intervention participants had significantly higher confidence to garden compared to control participants but at end-program intervention and control participants did not significantly differ in any of the outcome variables. Bivariate findings also revealed that intervention participants who had higher confidence to garden or to consume fruits and vegetables at baseline also gardened more at end-program. Thus, interventions targeting confidence to garden and to consume fruits and vegetables may be effective in improving gardening (i.e., physical activity) behavior. Findings also suggest that seasonal change may be one influential moderator of the gardening program on confidence and gardening and fruit and vegetable consumption behavior change. Future research should examine the impact of the program in different seasons to clarify the effects.

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T.M. Waliczek, Roxanne Boyer and J.M. Zajicek

Texas Master Gardeners participating in an Annual Master Gardener Advanced Training Conference held in College Station, Texas, in June 2000 were asked to complete a survey investigating the impact of the Master Gardener program on perceptions of quality of life and motivations for becoming a Master Gardener. A retrospective pretest/posttest was used to compare the gardeners' current perceptions and their perceptions prior to becoming a Master Gardener. After becoming Master Gardeners, participants reported statistically significant improvements in areas relating to quality of life including physical activity, social activity, self-esteem, and nutrition. Comparisons between demographic characteristics and perceived quality of life scores showed no significant differences. Reasons associated with gaining horticultural information were the primary motivations for becoming a Master Gardener.

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T.M. Waliczek, J.M. Zajicek and R.D. Lineberger

A survey based on the Life Satisfaction Inventory A (LSIA) was used to investigate gardeners' and nongardeners' perceptions of life satisfaction. The LSIA was developed in 1961 by Neugarten and measures five components of quality of life including zest for life, resolution and fortitude, congruence between desired and achieved goals, high physical, psychological and social self-concept, and a happy optimistic mood tone. The survey was posted for four months on one of the largest online resources for Texas Master Gardeners within the Aggie Horticulture network, the Texas Master Gardener Web page (http:aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/mastergd/mg.html). During the 4 months, 402 responses were gathered. Additionally, identical `paper/pencil' format surveys were distributed to garden, church, social and community groups with about 400 responses received. In each group of participants, respondents differentiated themselves as gardeners or nongardeners by responding positively or negatively to the survey question, Do you garden? Results indicated statistically significant differences in comparisons of the overall life satisfaction scores with gardeners receiving higher mean scores indicating more positive results on the LSIA. When responses to individual statements were analyzed, results indicated statistically significant differences on 20% of the statements. Differences were detected on statements relating to energy levels, optimism, zest for life, and physical self-concept with gardeners answering more positively on all statements when compared to nongardeners' responses. Additionally, gardeners rated their overall health and their physical activity levels higher than did nongardeners.