tolerance of coffee plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. We explored the effects of melatonin on the dynamics of antioxidant enzymatic activity, lipid peroxidation, photosynthetic efficiency, and EL in C. arabica seedlings under drought stress. Exogenous
Sylvia Cherono, Charmaine Ntini, Misganaw Wassie, Mohammad Dulal Mollah, Mohammad A. Belal, Collins Ogutu, and Yuepeng Han
O. Ayari, M. Dorais, and A. Gosselin
Daily and seasonal variations of photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence and foliar carbohydrate content were studied in situ on greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Trust') plants grown under CO2 enrichment and supplemental lighting. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of seasonal variation of the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on photosynthetic efficiency of tomato plants and to determine the presence or absence of photosynthetic down-regulation under greenhouse growing conditions prevailing in northern latitudes. During winter, the fifth and the tenth leaves of tomato plants showed low, constant daily photosynthetic activity suggesting a source limitation under low PPF. In winter, the ratio of variable to maximum Chl-a fluorescence in dark adapted state (Fv/Fm) remained constant during the day indicating no photoinhibition occurred. In February, an increase in photosynthetic activity was followed by a decline during March, April, and May accompanied by an increase in sucrose and daily starch concentrations and constant but high hexose level. This accumulation was a long-term response to high PPF and CO2 enrichment which would be caused by a sink limitation. Thus, in spring we observed an in situ downregulation of photosynthesis. The ratio Fv/Fm decreased in spring compared to winter in response to increasing PPF. The daily decline of Fv/Fm was observed particularly as a midday depression followed by a recovery towards the end of the day. This indicated that tomato leaves were subject to a reversible inhibition in spring. Fv/Fm was lower in March than in April and May even though PPF was higher in April and May than in March. These results suggest that tomato plants develop an adaptive and protective strategy as PPF increases in spring.
Hector R. Valenzuela, Osamu Kawabata, and Harry Yamamoto
Methanol sprays reportedly increased yields of several crops in Arizona by 50 to 100 percent (Nonomura and Benson PNAS 89:9794(1992). Reports from other parts of the country have shown conflicting results with regards to the effect of methanol sprays on yields of horticultural crops. Several greenhouse and growth chamber (controlled temperature. day length, and photosynthetic photon flux) experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of methanol sprays on the growth and productivity of several vegetable crops in Hawaii. Treatment spray solutions consisted of 20-25% methanol, 0.5% low biuret urea. 0.001% chelated iron, and 0.02% surfactant. Control sprays only contained urea, chelated iron, and surfactant. Each experiment consisted of at least 5 weekly methanol sprays. Flowering cabbage, Brassica campestris var. parachinensis, had greater biomass production when sprayed with methanol in the late summer months. Similar results were obtained with choi sum in a 2 by 2 factorial experiment with methanol and water stress treatments. However, choi sum did not respond to methanol treatments in follow-up greenhouse trials. perhaps attributable to the shorter and Overcast days experienced in the fall and winter. Okra, chili pepper, and eggplant showed no response to methanol sprays. Okra showed a trend toward increase yields in response to methanol sprays, but differences were not significant. Follow-up studies in the greenhouse and in the field, which include evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency through chlorophyll fluorescence determinations will be presented.
Jieshan Cheng, Peige Fan, Zhenchang Liang, Yanqiu Wang, Ning Niu, Weidong Li, and Shaohua Li
in the biosynthetic pathways of the end products. However, there have been few studies on the influence of end product accumulation on photosynthetic efficiency and activities of related enzymes. Source-sink relationships can be also modified by
Madhulika Sagaram and Jacqueline K. Burns
photosynthetic efficiency. F v /F m is a photochemical quenching measurement that gives information about maximum efficiency of PSII centers. It is an indication of underlying processes altering photosynthetic efficiency; namely, nonphotochemical quenching due
Olfa Ayari, Martine Dorais, Gilles Turcotte, and André Gosselin
Yield of greenhouse tomatoes has greatly increased during the past decade due to the development of more-productive cultivars and to the use of new technologies, such as supplemental lighting and CO2 enrichment. Under high PPF and p[CO2], however, the capacity of tomato plants to use supplemental energy and CO2 decreases. Our project aimed at determining the limits of photosynthetic capacity of tomato plants under supplemental lighting (HPS lamps, 100 μmol·m–2·s–1, photoperiod of 14 to 17 h) and high p[CO2] (900 ppm). The following measurements were made on the 5th and the 10th leaves of tomato plants at regular intervals from November to May: diurnal changes in net (Pn) and maximum (Pmax) photosynthetic rate, Chla fluorescence of dark-adapted and no dark-adapted leaves, and the soluble sugars and starch contents of the 5th and 10th leaves. Changes in global radiation from 250 W/m2 in winter to about 850 W/m2 in spring resulted in Pn increases of 45% and 42% in the 5th and 10th leaves, respectively. During the winter period, Pmax was higher than Pn, suggesting that leaves were not at maximum photosynthetic capacity. In the spring, no difference was found between Pmax and Pn. Sucrose concentration in leaves increased progressively up to a maximum of 12-h photoperiod, while hexoses remained constant. The Fv/Fm ratio did not vary during winter, but significantly decreased during spring due to photoinhibition. Increases in global radiation during spring resulted in lower photosynthetic rates, higher fluorescence, and starch accumulation in leaves. Data will be discussed in terms of crop efficiency and yield.
The objectives of these greenhouse experiments were to determine the effects of elevated CO2 on growth, mineral nutrition, and gas exchange physiology of seedlings of four commercial Citrus rootstocks. We grew well-watered and fertilized seedlings of `Volkamer' lemon (VL), `Cleopatra' mandarin (CL), `Swingle' citrumelo (SW), and `Troyer' citrange (TC) cultivars (in decreasing order of vigor) in unshaded, air-conditioned greenhouses at ambient CO2 (350 μmol/mol) or 2x ambient CO2 for 5 months. CL was the smallest cultivar, had the lowest root/shoot (r/s) ratio,and lowest rates of CO2 assimilation (A) of leaves, transpiration (E), and water-use efficiency, (A/E). Overall, daily whole-plant water use was correlated with single-leaf E. Elevated CO2 increased both shoot and root growth similarly; therefore, r/s was not affected. Elevated CO2 increased A, leaf dry wt/area, and leaf C, but decreased transpiration and leaf N so that leaf C/N, A/N, and A/E all increased. Although plant size of the four cultivars ranked similarly at both ambient and high CO2, the more-vigorous cultivars grew proportionately more at high CO2 than the less-vigorous cultivars. Growing cultivars at elevated CO2 can yield insights into mechanisms determining vigor and relationships between A and plant growth.
Sandra B. Wilson, Keiko Iwabuchi, Nihal C. Rajapakse, and Roy E. Young
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Botrytis group `Green Duke') seeds were cultured photoautotrophically (without sugar) or photomixotrophically (with sugar) in vitro for 3 weeks at 23 °C and150 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). In vitro seedlings were stored for 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks at 5 °C in darkness or under 5 μmol·m-2·s-1 of white (400–800 nm), blue (400–500 nm), or red (600–700 nm) light. Photosynthetic ability and soluble sugar contents were determined after removal from storage. Photomixotrophic seedlings contained approximately five times more soluble sugars than did photoautotrophic seedlings. Dark storage reduced soluble sugars in both photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic plants, but photosynthetic ability was maintained for up to 8 weeks in the latter whereas it decreased in the former. Illumination in storage increased leaf soluble sgars in both photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic seedlings. Soluble sugars in stems decreased during storage regardless of illumination, but remained higher in illuminated seedlings. Red light was more effective in increasing or maintaining leaf and stem soluble sugars than was white or blue light. Regardless of media composition or illumination, storage for more tan 8 weeks resulted in dramatic losses in quality and recovery, as well as photosynthetic ability. Seedlings stored for 12 weeks comletely lost their photosynthetic ability regardless of media composition or illumination. The results suggest that carbohydrate, supplied in the media or through illumination, is essential for maintenance of photosynthetic ability during low-temperature storage for up to 4 or 8 weeks.
The effect of fruit on shoot growth, leaf area, and on dry weight (DW) partitioning into leaves, fruit, trunk, and branch sections was investigated using 7-year-old `Lambert' sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees. Dormant trees were sampled in the spring, and fruiting and deblossomed trees were sampled and compared at fruit harvest and just before leaf fall. Fruiting reduced shoot growth, leaf area, and above-ground DW accumulation of the trees. The annual above-ground DW accumulated was 13.4 kg for fruiting trees and 16.0 kg for nonfruiting trees. The greatest proportion of above-ground DW was partitioned to wood, whereas the least was partitioned to fruit. Current-season's growth (wood and leaves) appears to be a greater sink for photosynthates than is fruit because a greater proportion of above-ground DW was partitioned to current-season's growth than to fruit.
Leonardo Lombardini, Astrid Volder, Monte L. Nesbitt, and Donita L. Cartmill
leafminer on carbon assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency in pecan leaves. The hypotheses were that low-to-moderate injury induces a compensatory increase in photosynthesis and that degree of the compensation is proportional to the intensity of the