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Chris A. Martin and Richard L. Garcia

Eureka lemon (Cirrus limon L. `Eureka') trees were grown in factorial combinations of low (L) or high (H) temperature [day/night temperature regimens of 29.4C/21.1C or 40.5C/32.2C] and ambient (C380) or enriched (C680) atmospheric CO2 concentrations [380 umol mol-1 or 680 umol mol-1, respectively]. After growth under these conditions for 5 months, morning and afternoon leaf carbon assimilation measurements were made with a temperature-controlled cuvette attached to a portable photosynthesis system. Net (P3) and gross (Pg) photosynthesis were measured at 30 umol mol-1 intervals as leaves were exposed to cuvette CO2 drawndowns from 700 to 300 umol mol-1 at 21% and 1% O2, respectively. Photorespiration (Rp) was estimated as the difference between Pg and Pn. Generally, Rp increased as cuvette CO2 decreased. Morning and afternoon Rp of leaves adapted to LC380 conditions were similar. Morning Rp was higher than afternoon Rp for leaves adapted to LC680 conditions. Morning Rp was higher for leaves adapted to HC380 conditions as compared to HC680-adapted leaves. In contrast, afternoon Rp was higher for leaves adapted to HC680 conditions than for H&,-adapted leaves.

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Suping Zhou, Roger J. Sauvé, Zong Liu, Sasikiran Reddy, Sarabjit Bhatti, Simon D. Hucko, Tara Fish, and Theodore W. Thannhauser

sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (spot 571) in the Calvin cycle was also suppressed. Three proteins in the photorespiration pathway were identified: phosphoglycolate phosphatase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, and glycolate oxidase. The vesicle soluble NSF

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Francesco Loreto, Domenico Tricoli, Mauro Centritto, Arturo Alvino, and Sebastiano Delfine

Short-term fumigation with 1% methanol in air was carried out to investigate effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of horticultural species characterized by leaves with different stomatal distribution. Methanol decreased the photosynthetic capacity of all species. The hypostomatous cherry (Prunus avium L.) was the most sensitive species. Between the two amphistomatous species, the effect was smaller in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) than in melon (Cucumis melo L.). A 4-minute fumigation caused a stronger inhibition of photosynthesis than a 90-second fumigation. The time course of the inhibition of the photosynthetic electron transport following a methanol fumigation of cherry leaves suggests that methanol starts inhibiting photosynthesis and photorespiration after ≈60 seconds and that the effect is complete after 180 seconds. This inhibition is not permanent, however, since gas-exchange properties recovered within 24 hours. Methanol vapor effects were greatest when leaves were fumigated on the surfaces with stomata. However, fumigation with methanol does not affect stomatal conductance. Therefore, inhibition of photosynthesis following methanol fumigation can be attributed to a temporary inhibition of biochemical reactions.

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Desmond R. Layne and J.A. Flore

Abbreviations: A, net CO, assimilation; A max , maximum net CO 2 assimilation; C i , internal CO 2 concentration; K, carboxylation efficiency LA, leaf area; LAR, leaf area removal; PPF, photosynthetic photon flux; R 1 , photorespiration; RuBP

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Desmond R. Layne and J.A. Flore

The source-sink ratio of l-year-old, potted `Montmorency' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees was manipulated by partial defoliation (D) or continuous lighting (CL) to investigate the phenomenon of end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. Within 24 hours of D, net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of the most recently expanded source leaves of D plants was significantly higher than nondefoliated (control) plants throughout the diurnal photoperiod. Between 2 and 7 days after D, A was 30% to 50% higher and stomatal conductance rate (g,) was 50% to 100% higher than in controls. Estimated carboxylation efficiency(k) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration rate increased significantly within 2 days and remained consistently higher for up to 9 days after D. Leaf starch concentration and dark respiration rate decreased but sorbitol and sucrose concentration increased after D. The diurnal decline in A in the afternoon after D may have been due to feedback inhibition from accumulation of soluble carbohydrates (sucrose and sorbitol) in the cytosol. This diurnal decline indicated that trees were sink limited. By 9 days after D, photochemical efficiency was significantly higher than in control plants. In the long term, leaf senescence was delayed as indicated by higher A and gs in combination with higher chlorophyll content up to 32 days after D. CL resulted in a significant reduction of A, gs, k, variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv), photochemical efficiency, and estimated RuBP regeneration rate of the most recently expanded source leaves within 1 day. During the exposure to CL, A was reduced 2- to 3-fold and k was reduced up to 4-fold. The normal linear relationship between A and gs was uncoupled under CL indicating that A was not primarily limited by gs and since internal CO2 concentration was not significantly affected, the physical limitation to A imposed by the stomata was negligible. The decrease in Fv and photochemical efficiency indicated that leaves were photoinhibited within 1 day. The decrease in instantaneous chlorophyll fluorescence after at least 1 day of CL indicated that there was a reversible regulatory mechanism whereby the damage to photosystem II reaction centers was repaired. Leaf chlorophyll content was not altered by 1,2, or 3 days of exposure to CL, indicating that photooxidation of chlorophytl did not occur. The time to full photosynthetic recovery from CL increased as the duration of exposure increased. CL plants that were photoinhibited accumulated significant starch in the chloroplast in a companion study (Layne and Flore, 1993) and it is possible that an orthophosphate limitation in the chloroplast stroma was occurring. D plants that were continuously illuminated were not photosynthetically inhibited. After 7 days of CL, plants that were then partially defoliated yet remained in CL photosynthetically recovered within 5 days to pre-CL values. Under the conditions of this investigation, end-product inhibition of A occurred in young, potted sour cherry trees but the mechanism of action in D plants was different than in CL plants.

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Chenping Xu, Zhongchun Jiang, and Bingru Huang

decreased under N deficiency. These enzymes are involved in amino acid metabolism or photorespiration. Hydroxypyruvate reductase converts hydroxypyruvate to glycerate by an NADH-dependent reduction that occurs within peroxisomes. SHMT catalyzes the

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Suping Zhou, Fur-Chi Chen, Samuel Nahashon, and Tingting Chen

Photorespiration provides a protection mechanism in plants by diverting excessive energy accumulated from photochemical reaction, metabolizing toxic products and producing some protective molecules. The authors report cloning and characterization of a glycolate oxidase gene (GOX; NCBI accession DQ442286) and a NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase gene (HPR; NCBI DQ442287) from Pachysandra terminallis. The DQ442286 had the predicted GOX-like–Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (FMN) conserved domain and the DQ442287 had the predicted adenosine 5′-(alpha-thio)diphospho-5′-ribofuranosylnicotinamide nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) binding domain (2-Hacid_DH_C). C-terminal peroxisome targeting signal was predicted to be -ARL for DQ442286 and –SKL for DQ442287. Both genes encoded enzyme proteins that are located in peroxisome and are involved in the photorespiration process. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to compare transcript level of the cloned genes after cold treatment. The 18s Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was included to calibrate the data. The relative cycle threshold values (gene/18s rRNA) were 1.4, 1.5, and 1.5 for GOX and 1.2, 1.3, and 1.3 for HPR in the treatments of 4 °C 4 h, 4 °C 12 h, and control. The data revealed that gene expression was enhanced by only short-term (4-h) cold treatment. A ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase gene (DQ 486905) was also cloned and analyzed following the same procedure.

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Lailiang Cheng, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Patrick J. Breen

Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO2 assimilation in response to photon flux density (PFD) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were monitored simultaneously in leaves of apple, pear, apricot, and cherry with a combined system for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange. When photorespiration was minimized by low O2 (2%) and saturated CO2 (1300 ppm), a linear relationship was found between PSII efficiency and the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation with altering PFD, indicating CO2 assimilation in this case is closely linked to PSII activity. As PFD increased from 80 to 1900 μmol·m–2·s–1 under ambient CO2 (350 ppm) and O2 (21%) conditions, PSII efficiency decreased by increased nonphotochemical quenching and decreased concentration of open PSII reaction centers. The rate of linear electron transport showed a similar response to PFD as CO2 assimilation. As Ci increased from 50 to 1000 ppm under saturating PFD (1000 μmol·m–2·s–1) and ambient O2, PSII efficiency was increased initially by decreased nonphotochemical quenching and increased concentration of open PSII reaction centers and then leveled off with further a rise in Ci. CO2 assimilation reached a plateau at a higher Ci than PSII efficiency because increasing Ci diverted electron flow from O2 reduction to CO2 assimilation by depressing photorespiration. It is concluded that PSII efficiency is regulated by both nonphotochemical quenching and concentration of open PSII reaction centers in response to light and CO2 to meet the requirement for photosynthetic electron transport.

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Weicheng Xu, Faxian Su, Guangchen Zhang, Jianwei Hou, Sheng Zhao, Yuan Deng, Paul E. Read, and Guochen Yang

Sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO3) in aqueous solution was sprayed on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants beginning at first anthesis to test its effects as a photorespiration represser and resulting effects on yield. NaHSO3 sprays promoted plant height, stem diameter, fruit number and plant weight and increased the net assimilation rate, thus increasing yield. Concentrations of 60, 100, 120, 130, 200, 240 and 300 ppm were all effective, with 200 ppm optimum. Sprays repeated for three times at 7 day intervals were more effective in increasing growth and yield of bell pepper than spraying once or twice. This technique has gained acceptance as a practical method for improving production of bell pepper in Northeast China. Additional research is underway to further refine this practice.

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Lailiang Cheng, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Patrick J. Breen

Bench-grafted Fuji/M26 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) trees were fertigated with different concentrations of nitrogen by using a modified Hoagland's solution for 45 days. CO2 assimilation and actual photosystem II (PSII) efficiency in response to incident photon flux density (PFD) were measured simultaneously in recent fully expanded leaves under low O2 (2%) and saturated CO2 (1300 ppm) conditions. A single curvilinear relationship was found between true quantum yield for CO2 assimilation and actual PSII efficiency for leaves with a wide range of leaf N content. The relationship was linear up to a quantum yield of approximately 0.05 mol CO2/mol quanta, then became curvilinear with a further rise in quantum yield in response to decreasing PFD. This relationship was subsequently used as a calibration curve to assess the rate of linear electron transport associated with rubisco and partitioning of electron flow between CO2 assimilation and photorespiration in different N leaves in response to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) under normal O2 conditions. Both the rate of linear electron flow, and the rate to CO2 or O2 increased with increasing leaf N at any given Ci, but the percentage of linear electron flow to CO2 assimilation remained the same regardless of leaf N content. As Ci increased, the percentage of linear electron flow to CO2 assimilation increased. In conclusion, the relationship between actual PSII efficiency and quantum yield for CO2 assimilation and the partitioning of electron flow between CO2 assimilation and photorespiration are not affected by N content in apple leaves.