. Actively growing aerial sinks (i.e., flowers, fruit, spurs, and ES) compete for the C provided by these different leaf populations ( Ayala and Lang, 2008 ; Roper et al., 1988 ). Roper et al. (1987) suggested that import of photoassimilates synthesized by
Marlene Ayala and Gregory Lang
Yue Wen, Shu-chai Su, Ting-ting Jia, and Xiang-nan Wang
individual sinks ( Preston, 1998 ). Sink strength is the ability to import photosynthates and represent the competitiveness of importing photoassimilates. In two late-maturing Japanese pear cultivars, the sink strength determined the movement of
J.A. Flore and Desmond Layne
Resource partitioning between individual sink organs is dependent upon the supply of carbon from current photosynthesis and reserves, the relative ability of the translocation system to deliver resources to the sinks, and the strength or competitive ability of the sinks. To comprehend photoassimilate distribution in Prunus, one must have a general understanding of habitat, growth patterns, and changes in sink demand over the life cycle and seasonal development of the plant. In this review, we describe assimilation rates for the major Prunus species and general dry matter allocation patterns, with emphasis on environmental and biological factors that effect photosynthesis, partitioning, and control. The following factors will be covered: annual growth, changes with tree age, environmental and biological factors that effect photosynthesis, genetic factors, water, light, fruiting, and pruning.
Riccardo Lo Bianco, Brunella Morandi, and Mark Rieger
Along with sucrose, sorbitol represents the major photosynthetic product and the main form of translocated carbon in peach. The objective of the present study was to determine whether in peach fruit, sorbitol and sucrose enzyme activities are source-regulated, and more specifically modulated by sorbitol or sucrose availability. In two separate trials, peach fruit relative growth rate (RGR), enzyme activities, and carbohydrates were measured 1) at cell division stage before and after girdling of the shoot subtending the fruit; and 2) on 14 shoots with different leaf to fruit ratio (L:F) at cell division and cell expansion stages. Fruit RGR and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity were significantly reduced by girdling, whereas sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI), and neutral invertase (NI) where equally active in girdled and control fruits on the fourth day after girdling. All major carbohydrates (sorbitol, sucrose, glucose, fructose and starch) were reduced on the fourth day after girdling. SDH activity was the only enzyme activity proportional to L:F in both fruit developmental stages. Peach fruit incubation in sorbitol for 24 hours also resulted in SDH activities higher than those of fruits incubated in buffer and similar to those of freshly extracted samples. Overall, our data provide some evidence for regulation of sorbitol metabolism, but not sucrose metabolism, by photoassimilate availability in peach fruit. In particular, sorbitol translocated to the fruit may function as a signal for modulating SDH activity.
Sang Gyu Lee* and Chiwon W. Lee
The relationship between source leaf position and the photo-assimilate translocation and distribution was characterized for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown in the greenhouse. Three different positions of source leaf on the stem (first node above or below the first fruit cluster and fifth node above the first fruit cluster) were tested for their influence on 14CO2 assimilation and transfer to different parts of the plant. The leaves at the fifth node above the first fruit cluster transferred the highest (57%) proportion of C14 to other plant parts, followed by leaves borne on the first node below the first fruit cluster (50%), and the first node above the first fruit cluster (39%). In all treatments, fruits served as the strongest sink for C14, followed by stem, leaf, and root tissues. The leaf borne on the fifth node above the first fruit cluster transferred the largest amount of C14 to the second fruit cluster.
D.M. Pharr, J.M.H. Stoop, M.E. Studer Feusi, J.D. Williamson, M.O. Massel, and M.A. Conkling
Mannitol, a six carbon sugar alcohol, is widely distributed in nature and is a major phloem-translocated photoassimilate in celery. II may also function as a compatible osmolyte providing stress tolerance. Until recently, little was known about the route of mannitol catabolism in sink tissues of higher plants. An enzyme. mannitol dehydrogenase. (MDH) that oxidizes mannitol to mannose utilizing NAD as the electron acceptor was discovered (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1991. 298:612-619) in “sink” tissues of celery and celeriac plants. The activity of the enzyme is inversely related to tissue mannitol concentration in various parts of celery plants suggesting a role for the enzyme in mannitol catabolism. In osmostressed celery plants, the activity of the enzyme in sink tissues decreases as mannitol accumulates.
Celery cells growing heterotrophically in suspension culture utilize either sucrose or mannitol as the sole carbon source and grow equally well on either carbohydrate. Mannitol-grown cells contain more MDI-I activity than sucrose-grown cells, and the activity of the enzyme is correlated with the rate of depletion of mannitol from the culture medium. Cells growing on mannitol contain an internal pool of mannitol but little sugar. Cells growing on sucrose contain internal sugar pools but no mannitol. Mannitol-grown cells are also more salt tolerant than cells grown on sucrose. Our laboratory is involved in studies of the physiological role of the mannitol oxidizing enzyme in regulating mannitol utilization and the role of the enzyme in regulating mannitol pool size during salt and osmostress in both celery plants and celery suspension cultures. Current studies on the molecular control of expression of the enzyme will be discussed.
Kirk D. Larson and Douglas V. Shaw
Bare-rooted `Camarosa' strawberry runner plants were established in a fruit production field on 1 Nov. 1993 using annual hill culture and two preplant soil fumigation treatments: 1) a mixture of 2 methyl bromide: 1 chloropicrin (wt: wt, 392 kg·ha-1) injected into the soil before forming raised planting beds (MBC); or 2) nonfumigation (NF). At about 33-day intervals between mid-January and the end of May, 20 plants were destructively sampled from each treatment to determine leaf dry mass (LDM), crown dry mass (CDM), root dry mass (RDM), and shoot: root dry mass (SRDM) ratios. Plant mortality was <0.2% throughout the study and did not differ with soil treatment. Regardless of sampling date, LDM, CDM, and RDM were greater for MBC plants than for NF plants, although treatment differences were not always significant. During the first 143 days, NF plants allocated a greater proportion of dry matter to roots than to shoots compared to MBC plants, indicating that roots are a stronger sink for photoassimilate in nonfumigated than in fumigated soils. However, there was no difference between treatments in SRDM by the end of the study. Fruit yield and a 10-fruit weight were determined at weekly intervals from mid-January until 23 May 1994. Yield and mean fruit weight of NF plants were 72% and 90%, respectively, of that of MBC plants. For both treatments, about one-half of total fruit production occurred between 144 and 174 days after planting (late March to late April). During that same period, rates of dry matter accumulation in leaf, crown, and root tissues decreased for plants in both treatments, but greatest reductions occurred in NF plants. Chemical name used: trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin).
J.A. Flore and Desmond R. Layne
Teryl R. Roper and John S. Klueh
The source of photosynthate for developing cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fruit can be partitioned spatially among new growth acropetal to fruit, 1-year-old leaves basipetal to fruit, and adjacent uprights along the same runner. Cranberry uprights were labeled with 14CO2 in an open system with constant activity during flowering or fruit development. When new growth acropetal to fruit was labeled, substantial activity was found in flowers or fruit. Little activity was found in basipetal tissues. When 1-year-old basipetal leaves were labeled, most of the activity remained in the labeled leaves, with some activity in flowers or fruit. Almost no labeled C moved into acropetal tissues. When new growth of adjacent nonfruiting uprights on the same runner were labeled, almost no activity moved into the fruiting upright. These data confirm that new growth acropetal to developing flowers and fruit is the primary source of photosynthate for fruit development. Furthermore, they show that during the short time studied in our experiment, almost no C moved from one upright to another.