Effects of different plant oils (soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, peanut oil, linseed oil, and cotton seed oil) and oil component emulsions on scald development in `Delicious' apples were studied. Prestorage treatment with commercial plant oils reduced scald development, but was not as effective as 2000 mg•L-1 diphenylamine (DPA) after 6 months of cold storage. Different oil components played different roles in affecting scald. At 6% or 9% concentrations, neutral lipids (mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols), and phospholipids inhibited scald to the same level of 2000 mg•L-1 DPA treatment. Free fatty acids partially reduced scald, while α-tocopherol at 3% or higher concentrations accelerated scald development. There were no differences in scald inhibition between unsaturated neutral lipids and saturated neutral lipids or among the different acylated neutral lipids. When α-tocopherol was stripped from plant oils, the stripped plant oils at 6% or 9% controlled scald to the same level of 2000 mg•L-1 DPA treatment. Emulsions of 6% or 9% neutral lipids, phospholipids, or stripped plant oils did not induce greasiness on fruit skin. Fruit treated with lipids, phospholipids, or stripped plant oils looked greener and fresher compared with the control by the end of storage.
Zhiguo Ju, Yousheng Duan, and Zhiqiang Ju
Bruce D. Whitaker
, phosphatidylethanolamine; PG, phosphatidylglycerol; PI, phosphatidylinositol; PL, phospholipid; SG, steryl glycoside; TSL, total steryl lipids (FS + ASG + SG). Use of a company or product name by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) does not imply approval or
Cheng-lie Zhang, Paul H. Li, and Charles C. Shin
Twenty-day-old `Bush Blue Lake 47' common bean plants grown in a growth chamber at 25 days/22C night and a 12-hour photoperiod regime were foliar sprayed with 0.5% GLK-8903 including 0.05% Tween-20. After 24 hours of treatment, plants were chilled in a cold room (4C day/night, 12 hours of light). After 3 days of chilling, leaves of untreated controls were injured, as visually characterized by leaf wilting, whereas leaves of the GLK-8903-treated plants still retained turgor. During chilling, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) decreased. GLK-8903 treatment had no effect on SOD and POD activities; however, the CAT activity was reduced significantly after GLK-8903 treatment either at 25 or at 4C. During chilling, the content of malondialdehyde, a decomposition product of phospholipid peroxidation, increased in treated plants and untreated controls, with increased content significantly lower in the former compared with the latter. The GLK-8903 per se and total lipid extracted from GLK-8903-treated plants were able to reduce the linoleic acid oxidation in vitro. The mechanism by which GLK-8903 alleviates chilling injury in bean plants is discussed.
Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust
The glycolipids, phospholipids, and sterols were determined in normal and watercore-affected apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Delicious). Fruit with watercore contained higher amounts of glycolipids, phospholipids, and sterols. The ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and (18:3) to (18:1 + 18:2) were lower in watercore-affected tissue than in normal tissue. The ratio of free sterols to phospholipids was higher, whereas the ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine was lower in watercore-affected apple. Membrane lipids were altered in watercore-affected fruit.
Zienab F.R. Ahmed and Jiwan P. Palta
, 2006 ; Hong and Chung, 2006 ; Hong et al., 2007 ). There is additional evidence that phospholipids and lysophospholipids such as LPE are signaling molecules that can regulate plant growth and development ( Chapman, 1998 ; Cowan, 2006a , 2006b
Using an aqueous polymer two-phase [polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3400/dextran T500, 6.2%: 6.2%, w/w] partitioning procedure combined with isopycnic fractionation, plasma membranes derived from muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates Naud.) leaf blades have been isolated and examined for marker enzyme activity, density, and molecular composition. After aqueous polymer partitioning, plasma membranes were centrifuged on a linear sucrose density gradient, and a single band was found at the 31% (w/w) sucrose (1.13 g-cm-3). Identification of plasma membranes was performed by the combination of K+-stimulated ATPase, pH 6.5, vanadate inhibition of ATPase and KNO3-insensitive ATPase activity. Plasma membranes from seedling leaves grown for 5 days at 15C had the highest concentration of total phospholipids, the lowest concentration of proteins, and a total sterol concentration not significantly different from leaves grown at 30C. The total sterol to total phospholipid ratio of the plasma membrane from leaves grown for 5 days at 15C was ≈1:1; from leaves grown for 10 days at 15C or 5 days at 30C the ratio was ≈2:1; and from leaves grown for 10 days at 30C the ratio was ≈3:1. The plasma membrane phospholipid saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio from leaves grown for 5 days at 15C was ≈0.8:1.0; from leaves grown for 10 days at 15C or 5 days at 30C the ratio was ≈1.0:1.0; and from leaves grown for 10 days at 30C it was 1.4:1.0.
Gene Lester and Eduardo Stein
Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the plasma membrane from hypodermal mesocarp tissue of netted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) fruit were compared in relation to the permeability changes of the same tissue during fruit maturation and storage at 4 or 24C. As muskmelon fruit progress from immaturity to maturity, and with storage of mature fruit at 4 or 24C, increased permeability of the hypodermal-mesocarp tissue occurs coincident with an increase in the saturation index of the plasma membrane phospholipids. Buoyant density of the plasma membrane from hypodermal mesocarp tissue increased from 1.13 to 1.14 g·cm-3 during fruit maturation. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity was highest in mature fruit at harvest. After 10 days of storage, vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was much lower in fruit kept at 24C than in those kept at 4C. The decrease in vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in fruit stored at 24C was correlated with increased hypodermal-mesocarp membrane permeability. We suggest that biochemical changes affecting the lipid matrix of the plasma membrane influence fruit membrane permeability and possibly muskmelon storage life.
Kemin Su, Dale J. Bremer, Richard Jeannotte, Ruth Welti, and Celeste Yang
molecular species in cellular membranes may change in response to environmental stress ( Grover et al., 2000 ; Welti et al., 2002 ). The major categories of plant cellular membrane lipids are glycolipids and phospholipids ( Lea and Leegood, 1993
Shiow Y. Wang, Miklos Faust, and Michael J. Line
The effect of IAA on apical dominance in apple buds was examined in relation to changes in proton density (free water) and membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. Decapitation induced budbreak and enhanced lateral bud growth. IAA replaced apical control of lateral buds and maintained paradormancy. Maximal inhibition was obtained when IAA was applied immediately after the apical bud was removed; delaying application reduced the effect of IAA. An increase in proton density in lateral buds was observed 2 days after decapitation, whereas the change in membrane lipid composition occurred 4 days later. Removing the terminal bud increased membrane galacto- and phospholipids and the ratio of unsaturated to corresponding saturated fatty acids. Decapitation also decreased the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids in lateral buds. Applying thidiazuron to lateral buds of decapitated shoots enhanced these effects, whereas applying IAA to the terminal end of decapitated shoots inhibited the increase of proton density and prevented changes in membrane lipid composition in lateral buds. These results suggest that change in water movement alters membrane lipid composition and then induces lateral bud growth. IAA, presumably produced by the terminal bud, restricts the movement of water to lateral buds and inhibits their growth in apple.
Hybrid honey dew muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) fruit physiological maturity, the period of maximized or greatest compositional changes, occurs by 40 days after anthesis (DAA). Fruit maturity was determined by major changes in quality attributes: glucose, fructose, sucrose, and moisture content, firmness, mass, volume, and hypodermal-mesocarp plasma membrane specific H+-ATPase (E.C. 220.127.116.11) activity. Fruit ripening occurs by 50 DAA, as determined by additional changes in the mentioned quality attributes, and by fruit abscission at 50 DAA. Fruit senescence begins with decreases in almost all quality attributes, H+-ATPase activity, protein content, by the largest increase in the total free sterol : total phospholipid (FS:PL) ratio, and in hypodermal-mesocarp lipoxygenase (E.C. 18.104.22.168) activity. Physicochemical profiles of hybrid honey dew muskmelon fruit during growth and maturation should be useful to schedule commercial harvest of mature fruit, which is necessary for maximum honey dew fruit quality, extended shelf-life, and enhanced consumer satisfaction.