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Kathryn C. Taylor and Parshall B. Bush

To discern how the packing process influences pesticide residue loads on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit; postharvest, post hydrocooled, and post brushed fruit were assessed for levels of several pesticides. The packing house process reduced pesticide residue levels on fresh peaches to levels that were generally below detection limits of our assays in 1998. Carbaryl and captan residues from field packed fruit were 32.2× and 21.9×, respectively, of that found in the peel of fruit processed in the packing house in 1998. Carbaryl levels were not reduced by hydrocooling but postharvest brushing reduced pesticide residues up to 94% in fruit peel. Across processing operations and cultivars assessed in 1999, hydrocooling, hydrocooling plus brushing, and brushing alone removed 37%, 62%, and 53%, respectively, of the encapsulated methyl parathion residues from fruit peel. Hydrocooling had the greatest impact on phosmet removal from peel, reducing levels by 72.5%. After hydrocooling, phosmet was 5.7× following brushing in one-half of the subsequent samples. This increase occurred at all three farms, suggesting that periodic cleaning of brushes may be necessary to prevent later contamination of peach peel with pesticides. In the only example in which propiconazole residue remained on peaches at picking, it was removed most effectively (69%) by the brushing operation. Nearly 31% of the propiconazole was removed in the hydrocooler. The packing process before shipment to retail outlets was generally effective in the removal of pesticides that may be present on peel at the time of harvest. Assessment of pesticide residue levels in peach flesh was uniformly below the levels of detection in our assays, suggesting that the classes of pesticide analyzed in peaches were not transepidermal.

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Charles C. Reilly, Michael W. Hotchkiss, and Kathryn C. Taylor

Pesticide application in peach (Prunus persica) orchards with a commercial airblast sprayer was compared to that of an air assisted rotary atomizer (AARA), low-volume sprayer during the 2000 through 2003 seasons. The two technologies were employed during early season petal fall applications, shuck split applications and standard cover sprays using phosmet, sulfur, propiconazole, chlorothalonil, azoxystrobin and captan. Ripe fruit, picked 1 day prior to first harvest each season were rated for peach scab (Cladosporium carpophilum), brown rot (Monilinia fructicola), insect (Hemipteran) damage (cat facing), and blemishes. Differences in brown rot, insect damage, and blemish ratings were not detected between the treatments for each of the four seasons. Differences were detected during the 2000 and 2001 seasons for peach scab, with the AARA sprayer plots having a higher incidence. Spray coverage was quantitatively evaluated with Rhodamine B dye by leaf rinses that indicated there was equivalent coverage for each application method. Phosmet residue detection on trees of the treated rows was also equivalent from each method. Phosmet off-target spray movement (drift) was reduced 59% one row away from the treated row and 93% in the fifth row from the treated row by the AARA sprayer compared to airblast sprayer drift.

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John Speese III and S.B. Sterrett

acknowledge the contribution of chemicals for this study by FMC (permethrin and endosulfan), Gowan Company (phosmet), Bayer Corp. (imidacloprid), Abbott Laboratories (Btt), and Elf Atochem North America, Inc. (cryolite). Assistance in the field plots by Helene

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K.C. Taylor

The absence of red color in a streaked “Bleaching” pattern is periodically noted on late-season peaches in middle Georgia. The streaked pattern led to a hypothesis that accumulation of pesticides in the stem end of the fruit prevented anthocyanin formation. However, analysis of pesticide residues on affected and unaffected peel suggested this was unlikely. We observed that trees affected by fungal gummosis (caused by Botrysphearia dithodia) were most often affected by the “bleaching” phenomenon and that `Summer Gold', the most fungal gummosis–susceptible variety, had the greatest incidence of the disorder. In a preliminary trial, we tested the hypothesis that fungal gummosis mediates “bleaching” by interfering with anthocyanin color formation in the peel of developing fruit. Tree gum/resin and pesticides were tested for their effect on peel color development. The gum/chemical preparations were dripped onto fruit prior to anthocyanin or red pigment formation in peach peel. After the anthocyanescent period, fruit were observed for bleaching. The gum mediated a negative effect by sulfur, captan, and carbaryl in peel color formation in peach. Fenbuconizole and phosmet had a less negative effect on color formation, although the effect was noticeable. The gum alone, propiconizole, and chlorothalonil did little to effect on peel color formation.

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G. Schnabel and C.H. Crisosto

, Greensboro, NC) and phosmet (Imidan 70WSB; Gowan, Yuma, AZ) on 8 Apr.; captan (Captec 4L; Micro Flo, Memphis, TN) on 14 Apr.; captan and phosmet on 25 Apr., 6 May, 18 May, and 4 June; micronized sulfur (Microthiol Disperss 80DF; Ceraxagri, Philadelphia) and

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Melissa Bonham, Gerald M. Ghidiu, Erin Hitchner, and Elwood L. Rossell

, azinphos-methyl, and phosmet, until the early 1990s. Additionally, the increase in carrot weevil damage may also be attributed to limited acreage for crop rotation, an important pest management tactic for carrot weevil ( Grafius, 1984 ). Seed treatment

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Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, Donald M. Ferrin, and Arthur Q. Villordon

watered by hand. In accordance with the standard sweetpotato weevil ( Cylas formicarius ) control procedures, following a lay-by application of bifenthrin at 0.05 lb/acre, the plots were sprayed on a weekly basis alternating phosmet (Imidan 70WP, Gowan) at

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Connie L. Fisk, Michael L. Parker, and Wayne Mitchem

allowed to populate with native weedy species and were maintained by mowing to a height of 10–13 cm tall. Insects were managed per the Southeastern Peach, Nectarine and Plum Pest Management and Culture Guide ( Horton et al., 2013 ) using Imidan ® (phosmet

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Shital Poudyal and Bert M. Cregg

., 1998 ). Pesticide dose and exposure . Although pesticide concentrations in retention ponds are low compared with application rates, continuous irrigation even with low doses may build and cause phytotoxic responses. Miticides such as phosmet (applied at