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Dipayan Sarkar, Prasanta C. Bhowmik, Young-In-Kwon and Kalidas Shetty

radicals, but also induce important signals to protect plants from low temperature stress ( Polle, 1997 ). The role of phenolic antioxidants in plant abiotic stress response and protection has received less attention until now. Studies on the free radical

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Xin Zhao, Edward E. Carey, Janice E. Young, Weiqun Wang and Takeo Iwamoto

The inverse relationship between dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and incidence of many chronic diseases has been primarily attributed to the health benefits of phytochemicals ( Heber, 2004 ; Liu, 2003 ). Phenolics constitute the largest

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Malkeet S. Padda and D.H. Picha

( Scalbert et al., 2005 ). Phenolics are one class of naturally occurring bioactive compounds present in many fruits and vegetables. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been implicated in suppressing various health-related disorders

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Vlasta Cunja, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Franci Stampar and Valentina Schmitzer

ingredients in common cold remedies ( Coruh and Ercisli, 2010 ; Fenglin et al., 2004 ). Health-beneficial properties of Rosa leaves may be attributed to their content of phenolics, which are known to possess a wide spectrum of bioactive functions such as

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Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Wesley R. Autio

In recent years, cranberries ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) have been recognized as a major source of phenolic compounds in the human diet. Research is accruing that demonstrates the positive health benefits of cranberries ( Neto et al., 2005

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Pavlos Tsouvaltzis, Angelos Deltsidis and Jeffrey K. Brecht

., 2004 ). This disruption liberates PPO enzyme from mitochondria, allowing it to contact phenolic substrates in the vacuole and oxidize them to quinones, which then polymerize to dark pigments ( Friedman, 1997 ; Martinez and Whitaker, 1995 ). ‘Russet

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A. Howell, W. Kalt, J.C. Duy, C.F. Forney and J.E. McDonald

It is now widely held that the antioxidants contained in fruit and vegetables can provide protection against certain human degenerative conditions that are associated with oxygen free radical damage. This view is supported by epidemiological, in vitro, and more recently, in vivo evidence. Phenolics (polyphenolics) contribute substantially to the antioxidant complement of many small fruit species whose ripe fruit are red, purple or blue in color. Fruit containing high levels of phenolic antioxidants would be attractive to health conscious consumers, therefore optimization of production and processing factors affecting small fruit antioxidant capacity is desirable. In many small fruit crops, antioxidant activity [measured as oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC)] is positively correlated with their content of anthocyanins and total phenolics. Genera, species, and genotypes vary with respect to phenolic content. Both annual and geographical factors appear to influence ORAC, although many years of study are needed to distinguish these effects from other biotic and abiotic factors that influence fruit phenolic content. Antioxidant capacity due to phenolics is decreased by food processing practices, such as heat or aeration.

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Hideka Kobayashi, Changzheng Wang and Kirk W. Pomper

fruit intake and the lower incidence of chronic diseases ( Ness and Powles, 1997 ; New et al., 2000 ). The chemoprotective properties of fruits have been partly attributed to phenolics such as gallic acid and chlorogenic acid, and the phenolic content

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M.E. Garcia, C.R. Rom, J.B. Murphy and G.W. Felton

The leaf phenolic content of 25 Malus species obtained from the National Germplasm Repository was evaluated. Two methods were utilized for determination of phenolic quantity and form. Total dihydroxy phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometric method using diphenlboric acid 2 aminoethyl ester as the reagent. These phenolics were quantified by using HPLC. Differences in phenolic quantity and type among the species were observed. This variation will be discussed in relation to apple–insect interactions.

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Peter Boches, Brooke Peterschmidt and James R. Myers

average vegetable intake, tomatoes are an important source of phenolics in the human diet. Phenolics are a group of secondary plant metabolites that include phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. These compounds are produced only by plants and