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Victoria H. Wallace, Candace Bartholomew and Julie H. Campbell

Pesticide usage throughout the United States is coming under increasing scrutiny due to potential environmental and health concerns. Notably, concern about pesticide residue exposure of children at schools has intensified the debate over use of

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Amy L. Raudenbush

Horticultural crops grown in greenhouses may be infested with several insect and mite pest species simultaneously ( Cloyd, 2012 ). However, pesticides may be selective in regards to the insect and/or mite pests they effectively control, yet

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Damon E. Abdi and R. Thomas Fernandez

Container nursery crop production is an input-intensive industry with respect to water and agrochemical use, and daily irrigation, high fertilizer rates, and multiple applications of pesticides throughout the season are common practices ( Agro and

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Candace Bartholomew, Benjamin L. Campbell and Victoria Wallace

grounds) not only serve as homes to athletic teams, but are also used as recreation areas for children to play throughout the day. For this reason, a clear understanding of how pesticide bans have changed both grounds maintenance expenses and field quality

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Raymond A. Cloyd

Pesticides, in this case, insecticides and miticides, are the primary means of controlling arthropod (insect and mite) pests encountered in greenhouse production systems, including greenhouse whitefly ( Trialeurodes vaporariorum ), sweetpotato

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Salvatore S. Mangiafico, Jay Gan, Laosheng Wu, Jianhang Lu, Julie P. Newman, Ben Faber, Donald J. Merhaut and Richard Evans

Nutrient and pesticide runoff from agricultural production facilities is a concern because it is regarded as a potential nonpoint source pollution of surface waters. Nurseries may be significant sources of these constituents as a result of the

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George F. Czapar, Marc P. Curry and Raymond A. Cloyd

A national survey published in 1992 estimated that 85% of all households in the United States had at least one pesticide product in storage, while 63% of all households had one to five products in storage ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992

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Karen L. Panter

Between Dec. 1992 and July 1993, 13 greenhouse operations took part in on-site training programs concerning pesticide application safety. Each program involved a pre-quiz, post-quiz, presentation of two videotapes, discussion, session evaluation, and follow-up evaluation 1 month after each session. A total of 253 Colorado greenhouse employees participated in the programs, which fulfilled the employee training requirements for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication standard concerning hazardous materials in the workplace. Quiz scores increased from the pre- to the post-program quiz, from 17.3 to 22.1 points out of a possible 27. Post-program evaluations indicated that the vast majority of respondents either “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that (percentages in parentheses): “the training program will be helpful” (85%), “I understand hazardous materials better” (81%), “the training videos helped understanding” (84%), and “I would like the training done regularly” (79%). Follow-up evaluations showed that most “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that (percentages in parentheses): “I have used at least one new safe handling practice” since the program (55%), and “I plan to use more” safe handling practices (82%). This method of instructing employees about hazardous materials would be applicable to others interested in safety issues.

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Victoria A. Caceres, Cale A. Bigelow and Douglas S. Richmond

not, traditional turfgrass management programs, which tend to rely heavily on synthetic pesticide and fertilizer inputs, have been the focus of increased public scrutiny and legislative activity ( Williamson, 2007 ). Pesticide inputs associated with

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Jeffrey S. Karns

The use of microbes and/or microbial processes for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with pesticides is an idea that has enjoyed considerable interest over the past several years. Many microbes with specific pathways for the degradation of particular pesticides, or classes of pesticide, have been isolated and characterized. Unfortunately, most sites that are heavily contaminated with pesticides contain a mixture of the many different types of pesticides that have been used over the last 5 decades. This complex mixture of compounds may inhibit microbial degradation or may require multiple treatments to assure that all the chemicals are degraded. Treatment of wastes before they contaminate the environment is one way to avoid the problems associated with mixed wastes. We have isolated a number of microorganisms that detoxify insecticides, such as carbaryl of parathion via the action of hydrolase enzymes. These enzymes can be used to treat waste pesticide solutions before disposal. A system was developed for the disposal of one high-volume organophosphate insecticide waste by treatment with parathion hydrolase, followed by ozonation to yield harmless products that were readily degraded by other soil microorganisms. A second method for disposal of this waste involves altering the environmental conditions in the waste to stimulate the growth of microorganisms naturally present in the material utilizing the pesticide as a carbon source. This accomplishes degradation of the material over a 2-week period. Many, if not all, pesticides are degradable to some degree by microorganisms, and this fact can be exploited to provide cost-effective methods for the safe disposal of pesticide wastes.