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Salvatore S. Mangiafico, Jay Gan, Laosheng Wu, Jianhang Lu, Julie P. Newman, Ben Faber, Donald J. Merhaut, and Richard Evans

Nutrient and pesticide runoff from agricultural production facilities is a concern because it is regarded as a potential nonpoint source pollution of surface waters. Nurseries may be significant sources of these constituents as a result of the

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Chris Wilson, Ed Stover, and Brian Boman

Off-target deposition of pesticidal spray material is both an economic loss to the grower and a potential environmental problem in southern Florida. This study evaluated the reduction in non-target deposition of copper resulting from different approaches to spraying row-ends in typical Indian River citrus (Citrus) production systems. Using copper as a model pesticide, applications were made in a commercial citrus grove in June and July 2001. Non-target deposition on the water surface within an adjacent drainage canal, as well as on surrounding ground surfaces, was measured using Teflon spray targets. Specific row-end spraying scenarios included: 1) leaving both banks of nozzles on while turning; 2) turning the outside-facing nozzles off (leaving tree-facing nozzles on); 3) turning both banks of nozzles off at the tree trunk; and 4) turning all nozzles off at the end of the foliage of the last tree within the row. Deposition directly onto surface water contained within drainage canals was reduced significantly when nozzles were turned off at the last tree within a row, or when the outside-facing nozzles-only were turned off through the turn. Likewise, deposition was reduced on ground surfaces adjacent to the sprayer under the same scenarios. No differences were observed on ground surfaces on the opposite side of the canal. Significant reductions in direct application of agrichemicals to surface waters within Indian River citrus production groves can be achieved by turning nozzles off when turning from one tree row into the next.

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Victoria H. Wallace, Candace Bartholomew, and Julie H. Campbell

Pesticide usage throughout the United States is coming under increasing scrutiny due to potential environmental and health concerns. Notably, concern about pesticide residue exposure of children at schools has intensified the debate over use of

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Julie H. Campbell and Victoria H. Wallace

Synthetic pesticides are often used across the United States on public athletic fields and park areas to control weeds and various other pests. On these public recreational areas, the public is frequently unaware where a pesticide application has

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Amy L. Raudenbush

Horticultural crops grown in greenhouses may be infested with several insect and mite pest species simultaneously ( Cloyd, 2012 ). However, pesticides may be selective in regards to the insect and/or mite pests they effectively control, yet

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Damon E. Abdi and R. Thomas Fernandez

Container nursery crop production is an input-intensive industry with respect to water and agrochemical use, and daily irrigation, high fertilizer rates, and multiple applications of pesticides throughout the season are common practices ( Agro and

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Candace Bartholomew, Benjamin L. Campbell, and Victoria Wallace

grounds) not only serve as homes to athletic teams, but are also used as recreation areas for children to play throughout the day. For this reason, a clear understanding of how pesticide bans have changed both grounds maintenance expenses and field quality

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Raymond A. Cloyd

Pesticides, in this case, insecticides and miticides, are the primary means of controlling arthropod (insect and mite) pests encountered in greenhouse production systems, including greenhouse whitefly ( Trialeurodes vaporariorum ), sweetpotato

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George F. Czapar, Marc P. Curry, and Raymond A. Cloyd

A national survey published in 1992 estimated that 85% of all households in the United States had at least one pesticide product in storage, while 63% of all households had one to five products in storage ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992

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Shital Poudyal and Bert M. Cregg

plants and reduce the risk of crop failure, growers rely heavily on irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides. This can lead to significant losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) through runoff ( Andersen and Hansen, 2000 ; Broschat