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Jayesh B. Samtani, Celeste Gilbert, J. Ben Weber, Krishna V. Subbarao, Rachael E. Goodhue, and Steven A. Fennimore

( Duniway, 2002b ). Each of these fumigants has their advantages and disadvantages, and none is a complete replacement for MB ( Shaw and Larson, 1999 ). Besides their inability to provide the spectrum of pest control achieved by MBPic use, these fumigants

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Douglas L. Airhart, Kathleen M. Airhart, and John Tristan

Managers of greenhouses used in vocational training or therapeutic programs often face pesticide use restrictions due to medical safety codes, possible sensitivity due to client medications, frequent presence of patient groups, or the added risk of exposure to clients with limited awareness. This review of three horticultural therapy programs emphasizes the practice of preventive measures, manual controls, and limited chemical methods to discourage pest problems and outlines pest control strategies that may not be feasible in commercial greenhouses. The importance and application of integrated pest management and biological pest controls are discussed. Procedures and client activities for sanitation, cultural controls, pest monitoring, and safe application of spray solutions are presented. Client work habits and skills may be developed using the tasks suggested for pest control, and various skill competency levels may be incorporated into the management scheme. The need for client training and task accomplishment may encourage alternative labor-intensive pest-control methods in therapeutic greenhouses.

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Charles Meister

The IR4 Specialty Crops Program was established to assist in the registration of pest control products for minor uses. The national program, headquartered at Rutgers University and operating through four regions with a network of scientists in every state develops lists of grower needs, prioritizes projects and develops protocols to secure EPA tolerances that lead to labels. Every year IR4 works on pest control products needed by the fruit industry. Pest control products being researched for 2006 include: Insect and disease control in tropical fruit crops: Lepadopterous larvae control in peaches with Avaunt, Danitol, and Spintor: Mite and raspberry crown borer control in blackberry: Weed control in blueberry with Sandea and Spartan: Botrytis and anthracnose control in strawberry.

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Charles Meister

The IR4 Specialty Crops Program was established to assist in the registration of pest control products for minor uses. The National program, headquartered at Rutgers University and operating through four regions with a network of scientists in every state, develops lists of grower needs, prioritizes projects and develops protocols to secure EPA tolerances that lead to labels. Every year IR4 works on pest control products needed by the vegetable industry. Pest control products being researched for 2006 include Club root and wire stem control in crucifers with Ranman and Moncut: Lep. Larvae control in beans with Avaunt and Rimon; Phytopthora capsici control in peppers and squash; weed control in tomatoes with Reflex, Goal, and Dual Magnum and powdery mildew control in cucurbits. Research Projects were discussed and updated.

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Charles Meister

The three IR4 Programs(Food-Use, Ornamentals, Biopesticides) research pest control needs that originate from stakeholders in each state. Pest control needs are documented as Project Clearance Requests. Researchable projects are identified at the National Food UseWorkshop anda research plan is developed at National Headquarters. This year IR4will research magnitude of residue projects to secure labels on 25 pest product and vegetable crop combinations. The list of projects will be distributed. The IR4 Project, Southern Region has augmented this process by establishing the Southern Region Performance Program(SRPP). Research scientists are asked to submit funding proposals to evaluate pest control products. Each proposal is scrutinized to prioritize needs and identify the most appropriate pest control product technologies. Product registrants, IR4 coordinators and stakeholders are consulted before a final decision is made. More than 70 research scientists from all states in the Southern Region will participate in the SRPP in 2005. Research data will be documented by in the IR4 National Data Mining process and many new project requests will be produced and others expanded to provide workshop participants information as they set priorities for IR4 researchin year2006.

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Sally M. Schneider and Bradley D. Hanson

extremely low tolerance for nematode infestation and relatively long growing cycle require pest control efficacy at soil depths of 5 ft or greater ( Schneider et al., 2009 ). Compared with MB, many potential alternatives provide consistent control over a

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Anthony J. D'Angelo and James Quinn

A strategy for controlling pests with biological control was sought for production of salad greens and herbs in a nutrient film technique (NFT) growing system. A case study was initiated in October 1989 using a one half hectare greenhouse range (1988 construction) with no past or present synthetic insecticide use. Problematic pests were aphids and thrips. A natural predator/pest cycle (NPC) area was established (5% of total greenhouse area with potted herbs on benches) to provide an area for predators to establish and reproduce. Introduced predators, which successfully reproduced in the greenhouse, were Apidoletes aphidimyza (aphid control), Amblyseius macKenzie, and A. cucumeris (thrip control), Encarsia formosa (whitefly control), and Phyoseiulus persimilus (two spotted spider mite control), Naturally occuring predators of importance included a wasp parasitoid of aphids (Hymenoptera) and an insect predator, the minute pirate bug (Hemipters, Anthocoridae), which feeds on thrips and aphids.

Two flying predators of aphids (A. aphidimyza and the wasp parasitoid) dispersed well from the NPC area and provided effective control. The technique of applying the thrips predators, a slow moving mite to flats shortly before transplanting provided good dispersal on all transplants. The time for effective control by the predator was 4 to 6 weeks. Effective control was observed in chives but not shorter cycle crops (3 to 5 weeks average). Immature minute pirate bugs were also observed in the chives assisting in control. Effective spider mite control was accomplished 2 to 3 weeks after the release of P. persimills into infested area. Whitefly populations have been effectively controlled by E. formosa.

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Liming Chen, Matthew Wallhead, Michael Reding, Leona Horst, and Heping Zhu

infected sections of plants, use of mating disruption of insects, application of pesticides and biological agents, and monitoring pests to optimize timing of management actions ( Beckerman, 2018 ; UMass Extension, 2018 ). Among these pest control

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Karen E. Mulford and Dr. James Linduska

Cucumbers are susceptible to the bacterial wilt organism that overwinters in the gut of Diabroticite (cucumber) beetles. This disease is transmitted in feces via open feeding wounds and plugs xylem vessels of water conductive tissues. Insecticides can be applied to control Diabroticite beetles. Adios, a semiochemical bait impregnated with cucurbitacin is combined with the insecticide carbaryl, which can be applied after plant emergence to control Diabroticite beetles. However, the method of application for giving the maximum control was unknown. This study evaluates the rate of application, number of applications, methods of application using pressure and airblast sprays, and compares two Adios formulations. Also studied were the effects of Adios on bee fertilization and the quality of the fruit, since carbaryl is toxic to bees and thus affects pollination. Adios was also compared to a foliar insecticide, Asana XL.

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Karen E. Mulford and James J. Linduska

Cucumbers are susceptible to the bacterial wilt organism that overwinters in the gut of cucumber beetles. This disease is transmitted in feces via open feeding wounds and plugs xylem vessels of water conductive tissues. Insecticides can be applied to control cucumber beetles. Adios, a semiochemical bait impregnated with cucurbitacin is combined with the insecticide carbaryl, which can be applied after plant emergence to control cucumber beetles. However, the method of application for giving the maximum control is unknown; thus, this was the purpose of this project. This study evaluates the rate of application, number of applications, methods of application using pressure and airblast sprays, and compares two Adios formulations. Also studied were the effects of Adios on bee fertilization and the quality of the fruit, since carbaryl is toxic to bees, and therefore can affect pollination. Adios was also compared to a foliar insecticide, Asana.