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J.K. Collins, C. Biles, E.V. Wann and P. Perkins-Veazie

Increased peroxidase activity is used to predict development of off-flavor in frozen sweet corn. However, peroxidase activity was not indicative of flavor changes in frozen supersweet (sh2) or sugar enhanced (sul/se) sweet corn genotypes. These results suggested an inactivation or absence of certain peroxidase isozymes. Frozen `Florida Staysweet' (sh2), `Merit' (sul), and `Bodacious' (sul/se) kernels were cut from cobs after 0 and 12 months of storage. Proteins extracted from acetone powders were separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and Native-PAGE. Banding patterns differed according to cultivar and storage duration. All cultivars contained a peroxidase isozyme having a molecular weight of 99 kD and pI of 4.5. The sul/se and su2 cultivars expressed an additional peroxidase band of 17.9 kD. An additional peroxidase isozyme (pI 5.0) appeared after 12 months of storage in the sul cultivar. This isozyme did not appear in sul/se or sh2 and is a possible marker for predicting off-flavor in corn. This isozyme may also catalyze off-flavor reactions in sul corn genotypes. Although changes in total peroxidase activity may not predict flavor loss in all genotypes, certain peroxidase isozymes may be useful in predicting and catalyzing off-flavor reactions in sul corn cultivars.

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Olfa Zarrouk, Pilar S. Testillano, María Carmen Risueño, María Ángeles Moreno and Yolanda Gogorcena

process related to graft establishment ( Deloire and Hébant, 1982 ; Feucht et al., 1983 ; Schmid and Feucht, 1985 ). Higher peroxidase activity in grafted rootstocks was related to graft incompatibility in Prunus species ( Rodrigues et al., 2002 ), and

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Yuehe Huang and Gregory A. Lang

Five-year-old `Sharpblue' southern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) plants were self- and cross-pollinated (`O'Neal') to study peroxidase activities and isozyme patterns during fruit development. Both soluble and bound peroxidase activities were present throughout development. Activities were very high during early fruit development, with peaks at 10 and 20 days after self- and cross-pollination, respectively. Activity was much higher for cross-pollinations. During rapid fruit development, peroxidase activities were low. During ripening, the activity of soluble peroxidases increased, then declined in both treatments. Bound peroxidase activity increased during the color transition from blue to dark blue, with the increase being much greater in self-pollinated fruits. Banding patterns of both soluble and bound isoperoxidases varied by pollination treatment as well as fruit developmental stage. Pollen sources alter peroxidase isozymes and activities in developing fruits. During fruit ripening, soluble peroxidase activity appears to be associate with the color transition from light blue to blue, while bound peroxidase activity appears to be associated with the color transition from blue to dark blue.

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T.J. Miesle, A. Proctor and L.M. Lagrimini

The activity, isoenzymes, and histochemical location of peroxidase were studied in developing highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Total peroxidase activity increased during development when expressed on a fresh-weight basis, reaching a maximum in red berries and then declining. When peroxidase activity was expressed per berry it did not decline after the red-berry stage. Most of the enzyme was ionically bound to cell walls throughout development, with the number of isoenzymes increasing with maturity. Histochemical localization of peroxidase showed that enzyme activity spread throughout the berry during development.

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P. Perkins-Veazie, J.K. Collins, V. Russo and B. Cartwright

Individually, green melon aphids (Aphis gossypi) and anthracnose (Colletotricum lagenarium) can cause serious economic damage to watermelons by reducing stands and marketable yields. Greenhouse-grown watermelon seedlings at the third true leaf stage were infected with anthracnose (106 spores/mL) and/or infested with 30 aphids per plant. At the 5th leaf stage (about 7 days after inoculation/infestation), leaf disks were harvested from plants and indicators of stress measured. Peroxidase activity increased from 0.03 to 0.28 absorbance units/mg protein-minute in leaves with anthracnose. When plants were infested with aphids after anthracnose inoculation, peroxidase activity was 0.40 absorbance units/mg protein-minute. Plants having both aphids and anthracnose had more anthracnose lesions when leaves were infested with aphids prior to anthracnose inoculation. The presence of aphids and/or anthracnose stimulated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-caroxylic acid (ACC) oxidase activity from 28 to 44 nL/g-h, indicating enhanced ethylene production. However, aphids had to be present on plants at least 5 days before ACC oxidase activity was stimulated above control levels. Aphids combined with anthracnose failed to elevate ACC oxidase levels higher than either aphids or anthracnose alone. Both peroxidase activity and ACC oxidase activity in watermelon plants increased with anthracnose infection. Thus, watermelon plants stressed by aphids and anthracnose responded differently from plants stressed individually by aphids or anthracnose.

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Shahidul Islam, Carmen Rafaela and James Garner

Twenty-five cultivars were initially screened for germination at 10 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Four cultivars were chosen for further study for physiological and biochemical characteristics—namely, `Texas Cream 40' (TC-40), which showed ability to germinate at very high (40 °C) and low (10 °C) temperatures; `Black Crowder' (BC), which had acceptably high germination at 40 °C, but reduced germination at 10 °C; and `Mississippi Purple' (MP), which exhibited lower germination at all temperatures tested. The main sugars present in cowpea seed were sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose. Sugar contents were affected by cultivar, type of tissue, and temperature. Sucrose contents were higher in embryo tissue of cultivars with a lower germination percentage, and reduced in the cultivar with a higher germination percentage, suggesting the use of sucrose for germination. Sucrose decreased greatly at 30 °C and increased again at 40 °C. Sucrose “de novo” synthesis was higher at higher temperature. An accumulation of sucrose was evident in embryo tissues of cultivars with reduced ability to germinate at low temperature. Raffinose and stachyose contents were higher in ungerminated seed. In germinated seed, raffinose and stachyose contents were found only in cotyledon tissues at 10 °C. The peroxidase activity was affected by cultivars, type of tissue, and temperature. The highest peroxidase activity was found at low temperature (10 °C) in embryo tissue of the cultivar with the highest germination. The result also suggests that high peroxidase activity was related to ability of seed to germinate at low temperature.

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Azadeh Behrooz, Kourosh Vahdati, Farhad Rejali, Mahmoud Lotfi, Saadat Sarikhani and Charles Leslie

according to a standard curve. Peroxidase activity of leaf samples was determined using the method of Kar and Mishra (1976) . For this purpose, 1 g fresh materials was homogenized in cold phosphate buffer (0.05 M at pH 6.5). The homogenate was centrifuged

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Mosbah M. Kushad, Mohammed Guidera and Anthony D. Bratsch

Thirty horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., Mey., & Scherb.) cultivars from eight countries in Europe and North America and from advanced lines developed at the Univ. of Illinois were evaluated for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; electrical conductivity, donor: hydrogen peroxide oxido-reductase) activity. Nearly 86% of the activity was present in the taproot and lateral roots and 14% in the leaf petiole, but there was no activity in the leaf blade. The 30 cultivars were divided into three groups with high (eight cultivars), medium (13 cultivars), and low (nine cultivars) activities [11.58 to 16.97, 7.19 to 9.79, and 2.88 to 6.91 μmol·min-1·g-1 fresh weight (FW), respectively]. The cultivars with the highest activity were 819-A from the Illinois and 810-A from Switzerland with 16.97 and 16.67 μmol·min-1·g-1 FW, respectively. The cultivar with the lowest HRP activity was 244-A from the United States with 2.88 μmol·min-1·g-1 FW. Cultivar 819-A also had the highest protein concentration (4.92 mg·g-1 FW). When HRP activity was expressed per milligrams of protein, cultivar 167-A, also known as `Bohemian', had the highest activity and cultivar 244-A had the lowest (5.35 and 0.83 μmol·min-1·mg-1 protein, respectively).

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Su-Jeong Kim*, Chun-Woo Nam, Dong-Lim Yoo, Seung-Yeol Ryu and Ki-Sun Kim

Iris hollandica `Blue Magic' was treated with deionazed water as a control, 3% sucrose (Suc), 3% sucrose plus 0.4 mm silver thiosulphate (Suc+STS), 3% sucrose plus 200 mg·L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (Suc+HQS) and 3% sucrose plus 100 mg·L-1 benzyl amino-purine (Suc+BA) for 4hrs and then transferred to tap water. The vase life treated with Suc+BA was extended 4 days longer than that of control. The treatment Suc+STS or Suc+HQS did not improve vase life. The amounts of water uptake and transpiration by all treatments decreased after harvest, but those values were higher in cut iris treated with Suc+BA than in those with control. Cut flowers treated with by Suc+BA markedly improved water balance, comparing with control which was quickly changed to minus value. Anthocyanin content in petals of cut flower treated with Suc+BA was 3.5 fold higher than that of control. The treatment by Suc+BA delayed discoloration in petals and senescence of cut Iris. Peroxidase (POD) activities of all treatments were reached maximum at 4th day after treatment and decreased thereafter. POD activity was highest when the cut iris was treated with Suc+BA. These results show that the use of Suc+BA is most effective treatment for improving the vase life and quality of cut Iris flowers.

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Julio G. Loaiza-Velarde, Francisco A. Tomás-Barberá and Mikal E. Saltveit

Wounding during minimal processing of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) induces alterations in phenolic metabolism that promote browning and the loss of quality. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; the first committed enzyme in phenylpropanoid metabolism) and the concentration of phenolic compounds (e.g., chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoyl tartaric acid, and isochlorogenic acid) increase in excised iceberg lettuce midrib segments after wounding. The effect of short heat-shock treatments on browning and phenolic metabolism in excised midrib segments of iceberg lettuce was studied. As the heat-shock temperature increased from 20 to 70 °C, there was a decrease in the subsequent increase in PAL activity and the accumulation of phenolic compounds in excised midrib segments. Treatments of 45 °C for 120 s, 50 °C for 60 s, or 55 °C for 30 s significantly reduced the increase in PAL activity and subsequent browning seen in control tissue after wounding. Exposure to 45 °C for 480 s, 50 °C for 60 s, or 55 °C for 45 s prevented PAL activity from rising above initial levels. Phenolic compounds remained at initial levels for 3 days in excised midribs exposed to 50 °C for 90 s or to 55 °C for 60 s. However, 55 °C damaged the tissue, as indicated by a* and L* Hunter color values. The synthesis of chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoyl tartaric acid, and isochlorogenic acid was greatly reduced by these heat-shock treatments. These treatments also decreased polyphenol oxidase activity and, to a lesser extent, peroxidase activity.