practices requires selection of performance indicators and deciding what to measure. The most common measurements have traditionally been profitability and productivity, but sustainability and environmental health must also be addressed ( Fig. 1 ). The
Robert L. Mikkelsen
Xuan Wei, Hayk Khachatryan, and Alicia Rihn
production practice be economically feasible? By presenting cost estimates and primary economic performance indicators for selected individual annual bedding and perennial crops, we illustrated a great deal of variability in production costs and profitability
Robin G. Brumfield and Peter F. McSweeney
A 1995 study of 22 Australian nurseries 1) developed a profile of production, management, and profitability; 2) compared their performance to relevant U.S. benchmarks; and 3) identified trends and potential areas of improvement in the management of Australian nursery enterprises. The study confirmed that Australian nurseries incur high labor costs (38.8% of sales) comparable to United States nurseries, while costs of materials and supplies were lower than in the United States. Australian managers were concerned with marketing and recruiting and keeping labor rather than increasing capital investment to enhance production efficiency. Capital expenditures were funded from internal cash flow rather than external financing. Many of the nursery managers used relatively simple performance indicators, and most business objectives were stated in general terms. Concerns about the viability of the industry included oversupply, the growth in chain stores' business, factors eroding the demand for nursery products, and greater regulation.
Robin G. Brumfield and Peter F. McSweeney
We surveyed 22 Australian nurseries in 1995 to: 1) develop a profile of Australian nurseries from a production, management, and profitability perspective; 2) compare the data to relevant U.S. benchmarks; and 3) identify trends and potential areas of improvement in the management of Australian nursery enterprises. The study confirmed that Australian nurseries incur high labor costs (38.8% of sales) that are comparable to United States nurseries, while costs of materials and supplies were lower than their U.S. counterparts. Overall, the costs of the surveyed nurseries appeared lower than their U.S. counterparts. Concerns of managers were directed towards recruiting and keeping labor and marketing rather than increasing capital investment to increase production efficiency. Capital expenditures tended to be funded from internal cash flows rather than external borrowings. Many of the nursery managers used relatively simple performance indicators and most business objectives were stated in general terms. Australian nurseries carried more diverse product ranges than the U.S. nurseries. Many of the nurseries adopted quite vigorous marketing strategies with a stronger emphasis on marketing than in those in the U.S. Concerns about the viability of the industry included oversupply, the growth in chain stores business, factors eroding the demand for nursery products and greater regulation.
Burhan Ozkan, Robin G. Brumfield, and Osman Karaguzel
Turkish cut-flower exports grew from about $100,000 in 1985 to $11 million in 1995 (not adjusted for inflation). Since this is a growing industry in Turkey, we wanted to examine the production structure and main problems of export-oriented contract growers. We surveyed 33 cut-flower export growers and 30 contract growers between May and July 1997. We conducted the survey in the Antalya province, which is the center of the export-oriented cut-flower production in Turkey. The results indicate that cut-flower companies were not highly mechanized, but did use computerized accounting systems. Transportation of cut flowers to foreign markets was the largest expense item in the cut-flower industry. Despite a high rate of unemployment, cut-flower companies face difficulties in obtaining and keeping qualified employees. Managers tended not to use specific performance indicators such as sales per employee or sales per square foot relevant to the cut-flower industry. The most common method for arranging cut-flower export sales was personal contact with the importers. Contracts between firms which grew and exported flowers and smaller contract growers were common, but some problems existed concerning quality and financial obligations. Growers are using fewer commission contracts and are instead opting to sell on a fixed-price basis. The main concerns raised by managers were related to increased competition, price-cutting, transportation expenses for export, training, and labor supply.
Xuewen Gong, Shunsheng Wang, Cundong Xu, Hao Zhang, and Jiankun Ge
greenhouse tomato. Performance indicators The performance indicators include coefficient of determination ( R 2 ), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and index of agreement ( d l ), defined as follows: R 2 = [ ∑ i = 1 N ( Q i − Q
Giuseppe Timpanaro, Arturo Urso, and Vera T. Foti
)], and that of Aramyan et al. (2006) , who analyzed various performance indicators of the agri-food supply chain. In regard to the role of cooperation, the work of Fanfani and Maccarini (2009) demonstrated the imbalance between the size of a
James Shippen, Paul Alexander, and Barbara May
observing these metrics and basing their rating of the efficiency and injury risk of the action on these performance indicators. This study explored the potential for biomechanics to contribute toward the understanding of low-risk and high-risk body
Li-Chun Huang and Li-Chun Chen
marketing performance indicators of an enterprise’s Facebook brand page ( Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013 ; Sabate et al., 2014 ; Tafesse, 2015 ). Consumers’ response behaviors of liking, commenting on, and sharing posts have a double meaning for marketing
Edward A. Evans, Fredy H. Ballen, and Jonathan H. Crane
substantial rates of returns to be realized (i.e., that the risk was worth it), the following analysis focuses on examining this performance indicator. In particular, several of the growers indicated that they would consider returns on their investment in the