A study was conducted on various peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars to determine the relationships among seed germination, seedling survival, seedling rosetting, fruit development period (FDP), and percent dry weight of the ovule (PDO). Germination and survival increased rapidly between 80 and 100 days of FDP, corresponding to an increase in mean PDO from 16% to 50%. Germination and survival leveled off after 105 days of FDP at >85%, corresponding to a mean PDO of 64%. Rosetting was high among seedlings for cultivars with FDP <110 days, but dropped rapidly as FDP increased. PDO was found to be a better indicator of seed germinability and seedling survival than FDP.
Terry A. Bacon and David H. Byrne
Rosa Hemphill and Lloyd W. Martin
Joshua R. Gerovac, Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez
kohlrabi decreased 33%. Fig. 2. Hypocotyl length ( A – C ), leaf area ( D – F ), fresh weight ( G – I ), percent dry weight (dry weight/fresh weight × 100) ( J – L ), and relative chlorophyll content ( M – O ) of kohlrabi ( Brassica oleracea L. var
I. Klein, T.M. DeJong, S.A. Weinbaum, and T.T. Muraoka
Exposure to photosynthetically active radiation and the consequent effect on leaf mass per unit leaf area (SLW) and nitrogen (percent dry weight and μg·mm-2) allocation within tree canopies was investigated in walnut (Juglans regia `Serr' and `Hartley') trees. Percent contribution of discrete light flux densities below light saturation (100-700 μmol·s-1·m-2) to the total light exposure of individual spurs, exposed up to 9 hour·day-1 to saturating light (>700 μmol·s-1·m-2), was minimal (<1 hour), indicating that individual spurs were either exposed or shaded most of the day. SLW and N content per unit leaf area of individual spurs were highly correlated (second-order polynomial curve fit) with light exposure within the tree canopy, indicating uneven allocation of available N for optimal utilization. Nitrogen expressed as percent dry weight was not correlated with light exposure and SLW. Leaf N content per leaf area was highly correlated (linear fit) with SLW.
Arthur D. Wall and Joe N. Corgan
In dry climates, onions usually have the roots undercut at maturity before harvest. In a 2-year study, dehydrator onions were uprooted at maturity to simulate undercutting, and harvest was delayed for several time intervals. Treatment effects on fresh and dry yield, the number of bulbs per plot, bulb fresh and dry weights, and percent dry weight of bulbs were measured. Plots were considered mature when 80% of the tops had fallen. Delaying harvest 15 days after maturity without uprooting did not reduce yield significantly. Yield and both bulb weight and percent dry weight tended to decline when harvest was delayed >15 days after maturity, especially if plants were uprooted. This suggests that undercutting of onions should not be performed until just prior to harvest and that harvest should not be delayed >15 days past maturity. Yield losses in delayed harvest treatments were attributed primarily to Fusarium basal rot.
Brian L. Benson and Frank H. Takatori
Variations in plant growth, partitioning of dry matter and leaf area in seedling plants of F1 hybrid and open-pollinated Asparagus officinalis L. were measured and related to the yielding ability of the mature plants. The distribution of dry matter differed between hybrid (UC157) and the open-pollinated (OP) (UC72) cultivar. The root biomass was greater in the F1 throughout the experiment. From 2 to 14 weeks after emergence percent dry weight of root per plant ranged from 32 to 54 for the F1 and from 24 to 48% for the OP and percent dry weight of fern per plant ranged from 65 to 42% for the F1 and from 72 to 48% for the OP. Very high positive correlations were found between number of roots and stalks, length of stalk and root length, and “leaf” area and cladophyll dry weight.
Arthur D. Wall, Marisa M. Wall, and Joe N. Corgan
Onions (Allium cepa L.) with ≥18% bulb dry weight are dehydrated and used for spices and food ingredients. Bulb weight characteristics and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) of two commercial dehydrator cultivars, GS02 and GS04, and a breeding population, NM9335, were studied before and after maturity to observe phenotypic traits that may be useful for selection during breeding programs, and to study dehydrator onion carbohydrate physiology. At maturity, NM9335, GS02, and GS04 bulbs had 11.9 ± 0.33%, 18.6 ± 0.27%, and 19.4 ± 0.40% dry weight, respectively. Mature GS04 plants had 76.5 ± 0.01% of whole plant dry weight in bulbs, which is an extraordinarily high crop harvest index. NM9335 bulbs had higher fresh (hydrated) weight than bulbs of GS04 and GS02, but bulbs in all populations accumulated similar amounts of dry weight. Bulb percent dry weight before maturity did not indicate percent dry weight at maturity in the high-solids commercial onion cultivars. Bulb percent dry weight declined slightly after maturity in all populations. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose were relatively low, and fructans with degree of polymerization ≥6 were relatively high in GS04, but the converse was observed in NM9335. Relative amounts of GSO4 bulb fructan increased sequentially, in order of rank, from DP4 to DP6, but the converse was observed for NM9335.
Paul T. Wismer, J.T.A. Proctor, and D.C. Elfving
Benzyladenine (BA), carbaryl (CB), daminozide (DM), and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were applied postbloom, as fruitlet thinning agents, to mature `Empire' apple trees. Although fruit set and yield were similar for BA, NAA, and CB, BA-treated fruit were larger, indicating BA increased fruit size beyond the effect attributable to thinning. BA applied at 100 mg·liter–1 increased the rate of cell layer formation in the fruit cortex, indicating that BA stimulated cortical cell division. The maximum rate of cell division occurred 10 to 14 days after full bloom (DAFB) when fruit relative growth rate and density reached a maximum and percent dry weight reached a minimum. Cell size in BA-treated fruit was similar to the control. Cell division ended by 35 DAFB in the control and BA-treated fruit when percent dry weight and dry weight began to increase rapidly and fruit density changed from a rapid to a slower rate of decreased density. These data support the hypothesis that BA-induced fruit size increases in `Empire' apple result largely from greater numbers of cells in the fruit cortex, whereas the fruit size increase due to NAA or CB is a consequence of larger cell size.
W.M. Randle and M.L. Bussard
Sixteen short-day onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars with high (4.0 meq·liter-1) and low S (0.1 meq·liter-1) fertility were evaluated for several characteristics associated with bulb flavor. Sulfur levels interacted with cultivars in influencing bulb pungency and concentrations of S and individual sugars, except for fructose. Enzymatically formed pyruvic acid correlated poorly with bulb S concentration, which suggests differential partitioning of S into flavor and nonflavor compounds among cultivars. Bulb percent dry weight correlated negatively with bulb S concentration. Since poor correlations were found between enzymatically formed pyruvic acid and water-soluble carbohydrates, we postulate that pungency and sweetness function independently in bulbs of fresh-market short-day onion cultivars.