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Isaac T. Mertz, Nick E. Christians and Adam W. Thoms

weights that were less than commercially available AA treatment and V but were equal to urea N and the UTC. Differences in percent cover were observed on four of eight measurement dates, and occurred at 28, 35, 42, and 49 DAS ( Table 3 ). At 28 DAS, the

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Christian M. Baldwin, Eugene K. Blythe, A. Douglas Brede, Jami J. Mayer and R. Golembiewski

.58 kg·ha −1 a.e. resulted in the lowest PRG cover. For the main effect timing means, glyphosate applied at the four LS resulted in the lowest PRG cover. Table 4. Percent cover of ‘JS501’ and ‘Replay’ perennial ryegrass after various glyphosate

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Gregg C. Munshaw, Jeffery S. Beasley, Christian M. Baldwin, Justin Q. Moss, Kenneth L. Cropper, H. Wayne Philley, Chrissie A. Segars and Barry R. Stewart

‘Tifsport’ and ‘Tifway’ hybrid bermudagrass increased as N rates increased up to 68 lb/acre N ( Guertal and Hicks, 2009 ). However, they found that increased shoot density did not result in an overall increase in percent cover. Table 1. Type 3 fixed effects

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Haley Rylander, Anusuya Rangarajan, Ryan M. Maher, Mark G. Hutton, Nicholas W. Rowley, Margaret T. McGrath and Zachary F. Sexton

concentration; 2) weed seed survival; 3) surface cover crop residue before planting; and 4) weed percent cover before planting. We hypothesized that 1) tarps would improve the soil environment for no-till planting by increasing soil moisture, temperature, and

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Gina M. Angelella, Laura Stange, Holly L. Scoggins and Megan E. O’Rourke

biomass and percent cover, and numbers of wildflower blooms during the first (2016) and second (2017) years of establishment. We recorded total wildflower and total weed percent cover per square meter by taking two random subsamples per plot three times in

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Gabriele Amoroso, Piero Frangi, Riccardo Piatti, Alessio Fini, Francesco Ferrini and Marco Faoro

.5 kg·ha −1 ] and 3.6 kg·ha −1 oxadiazon (Ronstar®; Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein, Germany). Canopy height and percent cover were measured bimonthly during the experiment. Plant height was measured on four randomized plants per subplots while

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John B. Stiglbauer, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Dara M. Park, Joe E. Toler and Kendal Kirk

strings evenly spaced to form 100 equal small squares (1.85 × 1.85 cm). During data collection, the grid was randomly placed on each plot and grid squares with or without green turfgrass shoots or leaves were counted to determine percent cover from each

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Jared. A. Hoyle, Gerald M. Henry, Travis Williams, Aaron Holbrook, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck and Andrew J. Hephner

counts were conducted to assess buffalograss cover one, two, and three MAP. A 0.3-m 2 grid with 2.5-cm × 2.5-cm intersect spacing was randomly placed within each plot. The following equation was used to convert grid counts to percent cover: where a is

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Bridget A. Ruemmele, Robert Cunningham and M. C. Engelke

A limitation to distribution of some field-grown sod is the time required to produce a saleable product rooted sufficiently to retain its shape when removed from the ground. Research for a more efficient sod production process was examined using sod segments planted at a 1:100 plant:planting area ratio in an aboveground soilless, root-restricting system. Combinations of 3 growth media, 2 rooting stimulants, and 2 fertilizers each at 2 rates were evaluated to determine the most rapid and optimal sod development for zoysiagrass. Treatments were rated weekly for percent cover, rate of stolon development, and rooting. Although treatments with rooting stimulants generally scored higher than other treatments for rooting and percent cover, these differences were not consistently significantly different from week to week. No significant differences occurred among treatments for stolon development ratings. After 16 weeks of growth, sod strength was greatest when the growth medium was a peat and vermiculite mixture.

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C.E. Elmore, D.R. Donaldson and J.A. Roncoroni

Cover crops are planted between vineyard rows to control erosion, maintain organic material and influence pest management. Planted cover crops are preferable to resident vegetation (weeds) because they can be selected for beneficial characteristic. Sethoxydim and fluazifop-butyl alone and in combination with 2,4-D were applied in December 1988 and 1989 to release Festuca megalura (Zorro fescue). Untreated plots were mowed to maintain vegetation. Frequency, percent cover and biomass of the vegetation was evaluated to determine species shift. The vegetation was composed mainly of: 1. Festuca megalura, Poa annua with other grasses in minor amounts; and 2. Stellaria media, Centaurea solstitialis, Erodium botrys and Erodium cicutarium

Following sethoxydim or fluazifop-butyl treatments, annual grasses other than Festuca megalura and Poa annua were reduced but Centaurea sp. increased over the length of the experiment. Treatments containing 2,4-D Centaurea and Erodium spp. declined in both frequency and percent cover. The desirable cover crop species (Festuca megalura) increased in all treated plots. No species shift was observed in the mowed treatments. Two applications of selective post-emergence herbicides maintained shift of species over the 5 years of the study.