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Ellen Sullivan Bennett and James E. Swasey

The negative effects of the urban situation on human well-being are well documented, contribute to stress, weaken coping skills, and evoke a negative self-appraisal from residents continually surrounded by bleak settings (Stainbrook, 1973). The following research suggests that urban residents may visit public gardens as a means of coping with the stresses of city life. Results of a survey of urban visitors to two urban public gardens indicate that stress reduction is an important reason for visiting the gardens. The research also indicates a trend of reduced levels of self-perceived stress after a garden visit.

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Tina Bringslimark, Terry Hartig, and Grete Grindal Patil

the other hand. Two of the outcomes selected for study here, sick leave and productivity, can plausibly be attributed, at least in part, to chronic stress resulting from workplace demands. Another outcome studied here, perceived stress, is thus

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Jemma L. Hawkins, Kathryn J. Thirlaway, Karianne Backx, and Deborah A. Clayton

perceived stress levels, depending on whether they offered opportunities for being outdoors, increased social support, and contact with nature. In particular, it was hypothesized that the members of the activities that offered more of these opportunities

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being of older adult home gardeners and allotment gardeners to other seniors who were active in non-gardening pursuits. Hawkins et al. (p. 577) found that the allotment gardeners had significantly lower levels of perceived stress levels when compared

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Holly L. Scoggins

Bennett, E.S. Swasey, J.E. 1996 Perceived stress reduction in urban public gardens HortTechnology 6 125 128 Ceska, J. Alley, H. 2004 Botanical guardian's postcards from the field 5 Mar. 2010 < >. Donaldson, J.S. 2009

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Masahiro Toyoda, Yuko Yokota, Marni Barnes, and Midori Kaneko

, or both on job satisfaction and also on the overall quality of life of office workers. Other studies have focused on more specific aspects of human health: mood ( Larsen et al., 1998 ; Shibata and Suzuki, 2001 , 2002 , 2004 ), perceived stress

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Kathleen M. Kelley, James C. Sellmer, and Rebecca H. Robert

Assessment Program 14 May 2010 < >. Benfield, R. 2006 Who are our visitors… and what do they like? Public Garden 21 2 7 Bennett, E.S. Swasey, J.E. 1996 Perceived stress reduction in urban public gardens

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Ghazal Tarar, Coleman L. Etheredge, Amy McFarland, Amy Snelgrove, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek

Cohen, S. Tyrrell, D.A. Smith, A.P. 1993 Negative life events, perceived stress, negative affect and susceptibility to the common cold J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 64 131 140 Deniz, O. Aygul, R. Kocak, N. Orhan, A. Kaya, M.D. 2004 Precipitating factors of

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Sin-Ae Park, A-Young Lee, Hee-Geun Park, Ki-Cheol Son, Dae-Sik Kim, and Wang-Lok Lee

-being. Park et al. (2009) reported that older gardeners had a stronger grip strength and pinch force, and better self-reported physical health condition when compared with nongardener elderly. Older community gardeners reported less perceived stress when

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Michael W. Smith and Becky S. Cheary

perceived stresses. In summary, band application of P or K was effective in alleviating shortages of each element. Phosphorus application improved flowering, and K application improved kernel grade. However, certain issues were identified in this study that