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Jesús Enrique Retes-Manjarrez, Sergio Hernández-Verdugo, Carlos Alfonso López-Orona, Raymundo Medina-López, José Antonio Garzón-Tiznado, and Jesús Enrique Retes-Cázarez

annuum genotypes. The UAS12 accession is a promising genotype for future pepper breeding programs in developing resistant cultivars. This accession has an added value because it is the unique source of resistance reported in Capsicum annuum , which is

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Richard L. Fery and Judy A. Thies

-resistant, pimento-type pepper breeding line PA-566 and the root-knot nematode-susceptible, pimento-type pepper cultivar Pimiento L grown in three separate trials at Charleston, SC, 2007–2009. Fig. 2. Freshly harvested fruit of the root-knot nematode

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Reddy R. Chinthakuntla, Frank Matta, Rao S. Mentreddy, Umesh Reddy, Padmavathi Nimmakayala, Daniel Peterson, and Om Prakash Vadhwa

Chilepepper (Capsicum spp.) is the third most important vegetable crop in the United States. The market value of chile peppers for spices and condiments exceeds $650 million per year. With a growing Hispanic population across the United States, the demand for high yielding, good quality cayenne pepper continues to increase. In order to fulfill this niche market, a study has been initiated to develop pepper varieties that combine high yield potential with superior agronomic traits, including insect and disease resistance, and fruit characteristics, using molecular marker assisted breeding/selection. In preliminary trials, several F1 generations were created through inter- and intra-specific crosses among 220 germplasm lines belonging to six Capsicumsp. in the greenhouse. Selected F1 progeny, parent lines, and selected accessions were planted in single-row field plots the following summer. The crossing success was higher within species than between. The genotypic variation was significant for all parameters examined. The average percent germination (81.1) of F1 progeny was 32% and 45% higher than that of the parent lines and selected accessions, respectively. The F1 progeny were shorter in height; more vigorous in growth, flowered early, and with fewer, but heavier, fruits per plant out-yielded the parent lines and accessions by 50% and 120%, respectively. The study showed a marked heterosis in F1 progeny compared to the parent lines and accessions. Microsatellite genotyping to estimate genetic diversity and validation of markers that are linked to various traits is in progress and will be discussed in the presentation.

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Cecilia McGregor, Vickie Waters, Savithri Nambeesan, Dan MacLean, Byron L. Candole, and Patrick Conner

different genetic backgrounds to increase the probability of broader resistance. The traits important to pepper breeding will depend on the type of pepper the breeder is interested in developing. The specific goals in breeding bell pepper and chile pepper

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Jareerat Chunthawodtiporn, Theresa Hill, Kevin Stoffel, and Allen Van Deynze

necessary for a successful pepper breeding program because of the rapid genetic evolution and diversity of the pathogen ( Candole et al., 2010 ; Glosier et al., 2008 ; Monroy-Barbosa and Bosland, 2008 ; Oelke et al., 2003 ). Not only is level of

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Rachel P. Naegele and Mary K. Hausbeck

-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora capsici : A valuable locus for pepper breeding Mol. Breed. 32 349 364 Naegele, R. Hill, T. Ashrafi, H. Reyes Chin-Wo, S. Van Deynze, A. Hausbeck, M.K. 2013 QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora

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Richard L. Fery and Howard F. Harrison Jr.

Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the genetic relationship between bentazon tolerance exhibited by the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars Bohemian Chili and Santaka, and to evaluate the importance of cytoplasmic factors in expression of the tolerance in `Bohemian Chili.' Greenhouse evaluation of parental and F2 populations of the cross `Santaka' × `Bohemian Chili' indicated that the major dominant gene conditioning bentazon tolerance in `Bohemian Chili' is probably the Bzt gene that conditions bentazon tolerance in `Santaka' or a gene closely linked to the Bzt locus. Field evaluation of F1 and F2 progeny populations of the cross `Bohemian Chili' × `Sweet Banana' in both `Bohemian Chili' and `Sweet Banana' cytoplasms demonstrated that cytoplasmic factors do not affect the expression of the bentazon tolerance gene in `Bohemian Chili.' We conclude that `Santaka' and `Bohemian Chili' are equally satisfactory sources of a bentazon tolerance gene for use in pepper breeding programs. Chemical name used: 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).

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Derek W. Barchenger, Danise L. Coon, and Paul W. Bosland

Controlled abscission of floral structures is an important horticultural technique that has many applications throughout the growing season. A novel use of chemical abscission in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) is the removal of open flowers and fruit for the production of breeder seed. For efficiency of abscising flower buds, open flowers, and fruit of ornamental chile peppers, two foliar spray treatment levels, 1000 and 2000 ppm ethephon were tested. Ornamental chile peppers were chosen because they are prolific flower and fruit producers, making removal of potentially cross-pollinated fruit and open flowers laborious. Flower bud and flower number were reduced with both 1000- and 2000-ppm ethephon treatments, while fruit number decreased only with 2000-ppm ethephon treatment. ‘NuMex Easter’ was more sensitive to ethephon treatment as compared with ‘Chilly Chili’ and ‘Riot’. Ethephon had no negative impacts on end of the season growth index, mature fruit number, and seed number. We found ethephon can reduce numbers of flower buds, open flowers, and fruit with no long-term effect on mature fruit and seed number, making it a useful tool for the production of breeder seed in chile pepper breeding programs.

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Danise Coon, Derek W. Barchenger, and Paul W. Bosland

In the past, many ornamental chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars had to be pinched or sprayed with a uniconazole foliar application to achieve a dwarf, semidwarf, or compact plant habit. This study compares 12 currently available commercial ornamental pepper cultivars considered to be compact, and introduces 13 new ornamental pepper cultivars that do not require pinching or a uniconazole foliar spray to accomplish the desired dwarf or semidwarf plant habit. All 25 cultivars evaluated in this study were given either a dwarf or semidwarf classification based on industry standards. Of the 25 cultivars evaluated, 12 originate from and are commercially available and bred by various breeding programs, whereas 13 are new cultivars bred by the New Mexico State University Chile Pepper Breeding Program with the goal of having dwarf or semidwarf growth habits. Data indicate that the 13 new ornamental chile pepper cultivars did not require pinching or a chemical foliar spray to develop a dwarf or semidwarf plant habit and have the potential for commercial container production in the greenhouse and nursery industries.