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Megh Singh, Mayank Malik, Analiza H.M. Ramirez and Amit J. Jhala

imidazolinone-resistant maize, soybean, and field pea ( Pisum sativum ) ( BASF Corp., 2010a ). Pendimethalin (Prowl H 2 O™, BASF Corp.) is a preemergence, residual herbicide registered for control of annual grasses and some broadleaf weeds in Florida citrus

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Amit J. Jhala, Analiza H.M. Ramirez and Megh Singh

the base of the tree trunk ( Singh and Singh, 2004 ). Several preemergence and postemergence herbicides are registered for weed control in Florida citrus ( Futch and Singh, 2012 ). Pendimethalin (Prowl H 2 O™; BASF Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC

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Judith M. McDowell and Jeffrey G. Norcini

The granular formulation of pendimethalin (Southern Weedgrass Control) safely provides preemergent control of grasses and broadleaf weeds in a variety of landscape ornamentals but few annuals. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate phytotoxicity of pendimethalin to several annual species under landscape conditions. Pendimethalin at 1.7, 2.2, 2.8, or 3.4 kg ai/ha was applied over-the-top to cool and warm season annuals in a simulated landscape at 4-month intervals starting 15 October 1990. The simulated landscape was divided into 4 blocks (reps) with pendimethalin levels as the main plot factor and annual species as the subplot factor. Unweeded and hand-weeded plots served as controls. Irrigation (over-the-top) and insecticides were applied on an as-needed basis. All annuals except `Sonnet Burgundy' snapdragon exhibited some degree of stunting. `Vodka' wax begonia was the most sensitive to pendimethalin as it was moderately stunted at all rates. Weed control generally was good to excellent.

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Christopher A. Proctor, Matt D. Sousek, Aaron J. Patton, Daniel V. Weisenberger and Zachary J. Reicher

-N 3 ,N 3 -dipropyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-benzenediamine], pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine], and dithiopyr [S,S′-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate] are

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R.J. Cooper, P.C. Bhowmik and L.A. Spokas

Field experiments were conducted to determine the response of five widely used Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars (Adelphi, Baron, Bensun, Merion, and Touchdown) to preemergence applications of the herbicide pendimethalin. Pendimethalin applied during 2 years at 1.7 or 3.4 kg·ha-1 (a.i.) controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig.) Schreb. ex Muhl.] effectively without injury to turf. Pendimethalin at 3.4 kg·ha-1 resulted in a short-term suppression of root growth immediately following application in the first year of the study. The reduction was transitory and subsequent rooting and rhizome growth were unaffected by pendimethalin. Cultivar × pendimethalin level interactions were not significant during the study. Thus, the herbicide appears to be a safe, effective preemergence material for crabgrass control in Kentucky bluegrass turf. Chemical name used: N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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Milton J. Haar, Steven A. Fennimore and Cheryl L. Lambert

Field studies were conducted to determine the potential economic impact of the loss of pronamide herbicide to artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) growers, and to evaluate pendimethalin as an alternative herbicide during establishment of artichoke. Two rates of pronamide and one rate of pendimethalin were applied to perennial and annual artichokes. With the exception of wild oat (Avena fatua L.), pendimethalin controlled weeds as well as or better than pronamide. Financial analysis of treatment effects was based on weed management expenses and value of yield. The financial effect of using pronamide in perennial artichoke ranged from a loss of $247 to a gain of $326 per ha, whereas its use in annual artichoke increased revenue $542 to $5499 per ha. The effects on revenue of using pendimethalin varied with weed species composition and density. For three sites, revenue increased from $267 to $5056 per ha, while a loss of $1034 per ha occurred at a site with a heavy infestation of wild oat. We conclude that pendimethalin has potential as a pronamide replacement, or as a complement to pronamide. Chemical names used: 3,5-dichloro (N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide (pronamide); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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Patrick A. Jones, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, José J. Vargas, Brandon J. Horvath and John C. Sorochan

(Barricade 65WG; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC) at 840 g·ha −1 , pendimethalin (Pendulum 3.3EC; BASF Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC) at 3360 g·ha −1 , dithiopyr (Dimension 40WP; Dow AgroSciences LLC, Indianapolis, IN) at 560 g·ha −1 , and

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Timothy L. Grey, David C. Bridges and D. Scott NeSmith

Field studies were conducted in 1993, 1994, and 1995 to determine tolerance of seeded and transplanted watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nak.] to clomazone, ethalfluralin, and pendimethalin using method of stand establishment (directseeded vs. transplanted) and time of herbicide application [preplant soil incorporated (PPI), preplant to the surface (PP), or postplant to the surface (POP)] as variables. Yield and average fruit weight in plots with clomazone were equal to or greater than those in control plots for the 3-year study regardless of method of application. Bleaching and stunting were evident with clomazone in early-season ratings, but injury was transient and did not affect quality or yield. Of the three herbicides, ethalfluralin PPI resulted in the greatest injury, stand reduction, and yield reduction of the three herbicides. Pendimethalin (PPI, PP, or POP) reduced yield of direct-seeded but not of transplanted watermelon. Chemical names used: 2-[(-2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4, 4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone (clomazone); N-ethyl-N-(2-methyl-2-propenyl)-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine (ethalfluralin); N-(1-ethylopropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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Travis W. Gannon, Matthew D. Jeffries, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, Kevin A. Tucker and Gerald M. Henry

dithiopyr, indaziflam, oxadiazon, prodiamine, and pendimethalin are labeled for selective control of smooth crabgrass ( Digitaria ischaemum Schreb.) and large crabgrass [ Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in turf ( Anonymous, 2012a , 2012b , 2012c

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B.J. Johnson

Pendimethalin and oxadiazon are used commonly to control crabgrasses (Digitaria spp.) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. A field experiment was conducted for 2 years to determine if reduced pendimethalin and oxadiazon application rates would control large crabgrass [D. sanguinalis (L.) Sco.] effectively in tall fescue and common bermudagrass. Oxadiazon applied at 1.1 kg a.i./ha in each of two applications at a 60-day interval (less than recommended rate) effectively controlled large crabgrass (≥93%), regardless of turfgrass species. Pendimethalin applied at 1.1 kg a.i./ha in each of two applications controlled large crabgrass in common bermudagrass effectively (≥90%) but not large crabgrass in tall fescue (47%). The difference in pendimethalin performance between the two species was attributed to the ability of common bermudagrass to compete more successfully than tall fescue with large crabgrass during late summer. Chemical names used: 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethy1)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3 H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).