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Shanshan Cao, Stephen Stringer, Gunawati Gunawan, Cecilia McGregor, and Patrick J. Conner

(1)’ is a misidentified ‘Tarheel’ vine. Pedigree analysis results of ‘Burgaw(2)’ were consistent with the parentage of ‘Albermarle’, ‘Chowan’, ‘Topsail’, ‘Magoon’, and ‘Dearing’ (Supplemental Table S1), strongly suggesting it is indeed ‘Burgaw’. The

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Adam Dale, Patrick P. Moore, Ronald J. McNicol, Thomas M. Sjulin, and Leonid A. Burmistrov

Pedigrees of 137 red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) varieties released throughout the world since 1960 were used to calculate: 1) the genetic contribution of founding clones to these varieties; 2) genetic relatedness among them; and 3) their inbreeding coefficients. Fifty founding clones contributed to the pedigrees of these varieties with a mean genetic contribution ranging from <0.1% to 21%. Varieties were clustered according to the genetic contribution into groups strongly related to geographical origin. Varieties developed in the former USSR and derived from `Novost Kuzmina' formed a distinct cluster. The remaining varieties were clustered in groups based mainly on whether they were of North American or European origin. Varieties were clustered also on the basis of Wright's coefficient of relationship-a measure of genetic relatedness. Cluster groups were related to their geographical origin and the varieties within the groups could be traced to similar intermediate parents. Inbreeding coefficients ranged from 0.0 to 0.625 and were related, in part, to the numbers of generations of controlled hybridization from common ancestors. The British group, with the largest number of generations of breeding, had a low mean inbreeding coefficient, indicating that inbreeding can be minimized with attention to the mating system. Strategies are suggested for maintaining and increasing the genetic diversity in the world's red raspberry breeding populations.

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and Maxine M. Thompson

A chlorophyll deficiency expressed as yellowing of leaves was observed in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) progenies. Segregation ratios approximated 3 green: 1 yellow, indicating control by a single recessive gene designated chlorophyll deficient #1, for which the symbol c, is proposed. `Barcelona', `Butler', `Compton', `Lansing', Willamette', and the ornamental selection `Redleaf #3' are heterozygous. Pedigree analysis strongly suggests that all heteroxygotes inherited the recessive allele from `Barcelona'. A cross of `Barcelona' with the yellow-leafed ornamental Corylus avellana L. var. aurea Kirchn. produced no yellow-leafed seedlings, indicating that the chlorophyll deficiencies from these two sources are controlled by different loci. Progenies segregating simultaneously for this trait and the gene controlling presence of anthocyanin indicated that the two traits are inherited independently. Seedlings deficient in chlorophyll but with anthocyanin were able to survive under field conditions, while leaves of yellow-leafed seedlings lacking anthocyanin became scorched and the trees died.

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Dale E. Kester, Tom Gradziel, and Karen Pelletreau

A model for the epidemiology of noninfectious bud-failure (Fenton, et al., 1988) predicts that BF-potcntial is universally present within specific almond cultivars with variation existing in the rate and pattern of development of BF phenotypes. Orchard surveys of Carmel in 1990 and 1991 involving four nursery sources showed a trend of 2 per cent of affected trees after one year in the orchard, increasing to 4 per cent in the second, with prospects for gradual increase with time. All four sources produced some BF trees with significant differences among sources. A study has been started to identify the source and pattern of BF-potential within the entire Carmel cultivar. It has two parts. A pedigree analysis of propagation sources from eleven commercial nurseries traces their genealogy from the original seedling plant first discovered in 1947. A propagation test of approximately 3000 individual trees representative of the propagation sources of all eleven commercial nurseries has been established. The origin of each progeny tree has been maintained in respect to source, tree, budstick and individual bud location on the stick. Expression of bud-failure symptoms in individual trees will identify the source and pattern of BF-potential within the cultivar.

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Kenneth R. Tourjee, James Harding, and Thomas G. Byrne

The frequency distribution of gerbera flower hue in the Davis population of gerbera appears continuous and bimodal. This suggests that a gene of large effect may be segregating in a background of polygenic variation. CSA is a statistical technique developed in genetic epidemiology for investigating such complex traits without the need of inbred lines. The REGC program of SAGE (Elston, LSU Medical Center, New Orleans) uses the regressive models of G. Bonney (1984) through pedigree analysis to provide estimates of major gene parameters and residual correlations among relatives. Pedigrees obtained from generations 14, 15, and 16 indicate that a major dominant gene for hue is segregating and accounting for -0.66 of the total variation. The genotypic means are 32 degrees and 71 degrees for the aa and bb genotypes, respectively. The a allele is dominant to the b allele and has a frequency of 0.55. The residual parent-offspring correlation estimate is 0.2 and measures the genetic contribution to the remainder of the variance.

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Kenneth R. Tourjee, James Harding, and Thomas G. Byrne

The frequency distribution of gerbera flower hue in the Davis Population of Gerbera appears continuous and bimodal. This suggests that a gene of large effect may be segregating in a background of polygenic variation. CSA is a statistical technique developed in genetic epidemiology for investigating such complex traits, without the need of inbred lines. The REGC program of SAGE (Elston, LSU Med. Center, New Orleans) utilizes the regressive models of G. Bonney (1984) through pedigree analysis to provide estimates of major gene parameters and residual correlations among relatives. Pedigrees obtained from generations 14, 15, and 16 indicate that a major dominant gene for hue is segregating and accounting for ∼ 0.66 of the total variation. The genotypic means are 32 degrees and 71 degrees for the aa and bb genotypes, respectively. The `a' allele is dominant to the `b' allele and has a frequency of 0.55. The residual parent-offspring correlation estimate is 0.2, and measures the genetic contribution to the remainder of the variance.

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Viji Sitther, Dapeng Zhang, Sadanand A. Dhekney, Donna L. Harris, Anand K. Yadav, and William R. Okie

Rosaceae family ( Aranzana et al., 2002 , Downey and Iezzoni, 2000 ), including peach, in which pedigree analysis of cultivars with known or controversial parentage has been accomplished ( Cipriani et al., 1999 ; Dirlewanger et al., 2002 ). The U

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Thomas M. Gradziel and Mary Ann Thorpe

grandparent and has never achieved high plantings as a result of inferior fruit quality and yields. Pedigree analysis has documented extensive use of Dixon as well as a sibling selection designated ‘Dixon#2’ in cultivar development efforts before the 1980s

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Nina R.F. Castillo, Barbara M. Reed, Julie Graham, Felicidad Fernández-Fernández, and Nahla Victor Bassil

studies within Rosaceae Tree Genet. Genomes 5 133 145 Stafne, E.T. Clark, J.R. 2004 Genetic similarity among eastern North American blackberry cultivars based on pedigree analysis Euphytica 139 95 104

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Thomas Gradziel and Sabrina Marchand

has never achieved high plantings due to inferior fruit quality and yields. Pedigree analysis has documented the extensive use of ‘Dixon’ as well as a sibling selection designated ‘Dixon #2’ during cultivar development efforts before the 1980s