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Yoshiko Yambe and Kiyotoshi Takeno

The germination percentage of Rosa multiflora Thunb. achenes was greatly increased when they were treated with 1% Driselase, a macerating enzyme, for 36 hours. The seeds germinated more rapidly when the achenes were treated with the enzyme for a longer period. Treatment with Cellulase Onozuka improved seed germination at a lower concentration than did Driselase. Pure preparations of pectinase and cellulase had effects similar to treatment with the enzymes noted. Treatment with pectinase was more efficient than treatment with cellulase. These enzymes likely loosened the bond between cells along the suture of the pericarp and forced the pericarp to split.

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Wei Deng, Yunling Xie, and Yilan Qiu

Industry Co., Tokyo, Japan), 0% to 1.5% (w/v) pectinase (Serva-Feinbiochemica, Munich, Germany), 0% to 0.5% (w/v) pectolyase Y 23(Kikkoman Corp., Tokyo, Japan), 0.04% (w/v) CaCl 2 , 1% (w/v) BSA, and 6% to 12% (w/v) mannitol for 40–50 min with gentle

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Lusheng Zeng, Jiayang Liu, Robert N. Carrow, Paul L. Raymer, and Qingguo Huang

treatment for 3 d followed by drying at 40 °C for 36 h, only the high dosage of chitinase, laccase, pectinase, and protease was effective in reducing WDPT less than 60 s for the very strongly hydrophobic LDS Soil 7. For the strongly hydrophobic fairy ring

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Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm, John W. Finley, Jack N. Losso, and John C. Beaulieu

., 2010 ). Enzymes derived from bacteria, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus aculeatus , can be used to improve extraction from plant tissues and liquefaction, increase juice yield, clarification, and filtration ( Landbo et al., 2007 ). Pectinase

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Simona Pinnavaia, Emilio Senesi, Anne Plotto, Jan A. Narciso, and Elizabeth A. Baldwin

enzymatic solution under vacuum was developed ( Bruemmer, 1981 ). The enzyme, pectinase or cellulase, digested the albedo, facilitating peel removal ( Baker and Bruemmer, 1989 ; Bruemmer, 1981 ; Ismail et al., 2005 ; Pretel et al., 1997 ). Unfortunately

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Steven Pao, Peter D. Petracek, and G. Eldon Brown

An enzymatic peeling process is currently used to produce peeled citrus fruit that are convenient for consumption. By this process, fruit are scored and infused with pectinase or pectinase and cellulase solution and are incubated at 20 to 45C for 0.5 to 2 h. While enzyme solution apparently weakens of the albedo and thus improves separation of the fruit from its peel, we expect that enzyme infused into the flesh reduces storage quality. In these studies, fruit were vacuum- or pressure-infused with or without pectinase in water. The time required to peel white `Marsh' and `Ruby Red' grapefruit infused with solution containing enzyme were only 10% to 20% less than for fruit infused with water alone. `Hamlin' orange and `Orlando' tangelo peeling times were not improved by enzyme treatment. This suggests that water is the primary operative component of the enzyme solution and that the enzyme is an active, but nonessential, supplement. For white grapefruit and oranges stored at 5, 10, 15, or 25C, nonenzyme-treated fruit had significantly less juice leakage than enzyme-treated fruit. For example, 0.2% and 5.0% of the peeled fruit weight was lost by non-enzymatically and enzymatically peeled fruit, respectively, for vacuum-infused oranges stored at 5C for 7 days. Moreover, the enzyme treatment significantly reduced firmness, as determined by a sensory panel. Microbial levels and rates of respiration and ethylene emanation during storage were not significantly affected by enzyme treatment. Similar results were found for vacuum- and pressure-infused fruit.

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O. Smith-Kayode, S.A.O. Adeyemi, Remi Aribisala, Funke Bogunjoko, and G.N. Elemo

Conventional procedure for producing concentrated orange juice through evaporation often causes thermally induce gelation with difficulties in raising brix to optimum level. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of mixed pectinase treatment on solids extraction, recovery and pulp wash from selected sweet orange fruit cultivars. Enzyme use level, depectinization time were varied and pertinent rheological parameters determined on concentrate samples towards standardising quality control protocols. The enzyme treatment improved juice circulation in the climbing film evaporator and solids content raised to ≥ 60 Brix.

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Steven Pao, Peter D. Petracek, and G. Eldon Brown

Peeling and storage characteristics of citrus fruit infused with water or enzyme solution were compared. Fruit were vacuum- or pressure-infused with water or water-containing pectinase. The enzyme treatment did not affect peeling times of white or red grapefruit, oranges, or tangelos. Pressure and vacuum infusion methods produced similar results. Grapefruit and oranges infused with water had significantly less juice leakage and were firmer than fruit infused with enzyme. Microbial levels and respiration rates and ethylene emanation during storage were the same for enzyme- and water-treated fruit.

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M.V. Bhaskara Reddy, Alain Asselin, and Joseph Arul

We have investigated the relationship between chitosan treatments and maceration of potato tissue by macerating enzymes secreted by Erwinia carotovora causal agent of soft rot of potato. Erwinia isolated from potato showing soft rot symptoms was used for inoculation. The bacteria secreted a wide spectrum of enzymes that degraded potato cell walls. Polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PL), pectinmethylesterase (PME), cellulase, xylanase, and protease showed the highest activity in potato tissue inoculated with the pathogen. Accordingly increased maceration and cell death were observed. On the other hand, in chitosan-treated tissue and challenged with the pathogen, significant decrease in enzymatic activity and tissue maceration were observed, more so with increasing chitosan concentration. This observation confirmed that chitosan interfered with multiplication and pathogenic powers of the bacteria, thereby improving cell texture and viability. Crude extracts obtained from treatments were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess pectinase activity. The electophoretic profiles showed significant lytic zone of pectin degradation in the control, which decreased with increase in chitosan concentrations. No lytic zone was observed at 8 mg·ml–1 chitosan concentration and was comparable to intact activity in untreated potato tissue. Pectic enzyme reaction products were analyzed to see the action pattern of pectinases in the crude extracts. Cellulose choromatographic profiles revealed monomers and dimers of polygalacturonic acid up to 6 mg·ml–1 chitosan concentrations. The results suggest that chitosan significantly inhibits bacterial growth and the production of macerating enzymes by the pathogen and thus chitosan can be a potential anti-bacterial agent.