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Seth D. Wannemuehler, Chengyan Yue, William W. Shane, R. Karina Gallardo, and Vicki McCracken

( Malus × domestica ) and other crops does not mean it is cost-effective in peach. It is therefore worthwhile to explore whether it is cost-effective to apply in a peach breeding program. RosBREED included both large-scale breeding programs that already

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Wang Zu-Hua and Lu Zhen-Xiang

This manuscript is dedicated to the late Wang Zu-Hua for his extraordinary contributions to peach breeding. I thank D.W. Rammng and Jin Zewan for their assistance in revising this manuscript.

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James N. Moore, Roy C. Rom, Stanley A. Brown, and Gerald L. Klingaman

Three ornamental peaches and one ornamental nectarine were released in 1992 from the Arkansas peach breeding program. `Tom Thumb' is a red-leaf dwarf peach with attractive foliage that is retained throughout summer. `Leprechaun' is a green-leaf dwarf nectarine with small but attractive, freestone fruits. `Crimson Cascade' and `Pink Cascade' are red-leaf peaches with trees of standard size that exhibit a weeping growth habit. `Crimson Cascade' produces double flowers that are dark red while `Pink Cascade' double flowers are pink. The attractive plants of these cultivars should be of value in home landscapes.

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Annick Moing, Jean-Luc Poëssel, Laurence Svanella-Dumas, Michèle Loonis, and Jocelyne Kervella

Prunus davidiana (Carr.), a wild species with poor fruit quality that is related to peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], is used as a source of resistance to pests and diseases in peach breeding programs. Two genotypes of P. davidiana were studied for fruit biochemical composition and compared to three genotypes of P. persica (`Summergrand', `Bailey' and `Pamirskij'), and two P. persica × P. davidiana hybrids. Fruit of P. davidiana clones had higher malic acid, neochlorogenic and cryptochlorogenic acid and lower sucrose concentrations than fruit of all P. persica genotypes, even poor-quality Bailey. Differences in biochemical composition could be related to sensory evaluation. P. persica × P. davidiana hybrids had intermediate values between their parents for neochlorogenic acid concentration. They were similar to the P. persica parent for total soluble sugar, malic and citric acid, amino acid and catechin concentrations, indicating possible rapid progress for fruit quality in a breeding program.

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Omar Carrillo-Mendoza, Wayne B. Sherman, and José X. Chaparro

based on the mean from three first-order branches and used to select trees within the branching clusters generated by the index. The lowest index values within each branching cluster typically have the fewest branches. This index could be used in peach

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D. Michael Glenn, R. Scorza, and W.R. Okie

Two unpruned narrow-leaf and two unpruned standard-leaf peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] selections were evaluated for physiological components related to water use efficiency {WUE [carbon assimilation (A) per unit of transpiration (T)]}. The purpose of the study was to assess the value of narrow-leaf phenotypes to improve WUE in peach and separate the environmental component of canopy geometry from the genetic components. The narrow-leaf characteristic itself did not confer improved WUE. The interception of light was a key determinant of WUE in these genotypes. Internal shading of the tree by excessive leaf area reduced daily WUE measured in gas exchange studies. Canopies that intercepted more than 75% of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) had reduced daily WUE. Dormant season pruning of the four genotypes lowered isotopic carbon discrimination and therefore increased seasonal WUE compared to unpruned trees. None of the genotypes had a significant correlation of seasonal WUE with leaf and fruit weight. Analysis of covariance indicated that `Bounty' and both narrow-leaf genotypes had greater leaf and fruit weight than `Redhaven' for a given level of PAR interception. `Bounty' had the least internal canopy shading of the four genotypes. Genetic differences in peach growth types can be selected for factors increasing WUE as well as increased productivity. Future work in peach breeding to improve WUE and productivity must take into consideration light interception, productivity, and WUE in an integrated manner to make real progress in the efficient use of water and light in the orchard environment.

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P. Perkins-Veazie, J.K. Collins, and J.R. Clark

Promising white peach and nectarine selections, many with nonmelting flesh, from the Univ. of Arkansas breeding program were evaluated for fruit quality and flavor. About 20 kg of fruit, consisting of mature ripe and ripe stages, were harvested from 4- to 7-year-old trees in Arkansas and transported to Lane, Okla. Fruit were divided into two boxes per selection. One box was held at 5 °C for 8 days, then transferred to 20 °C for 4 days to induce chilling injury and was evaluated for storage quality. The other box was held at 20 °C for 4 days and fruit used for taste panels. Of the 14 nectarine and 12 white peach selections evaluated, one nectarine and four white peach selections had slight chilling injury. Flesh firmness of selections after storage ranged from 6 to 50 N. Taste panelist scores indicated that sweetness was associated with peach flavor in both nectarines and white peaches and that overall acceptability was dependent on sweetness, peach flavor, and low tartness. Ten of the white peach selections were equal to or better in overall acceptability compared to `Summer Pearl' and `Carolina Belle' cultivars included in the study. Panelists did not consider firm texture to be detrimental to overall acceptability. Results indicate that many of the breeding lines used in this study had fruit equal to or better than currently available cultivars in storage life, firmness, and sweetness.

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T.G. Beckman, W.R. Okie, G. Krewer, and W.B. Sherman

The purpose of this three-way cooperative project is to develop new fresh-market peach and nectarine varieties in the 400 to 650 chill hour range for the early season shipping market. Since 1990, >3000 seedlings have been evaluated, resulting in 48 selections. Additionally, several hundred selections from other programs have been evaluated. `Sunsplash', an attractive, early season, 400 chill hour nectarine, was released in 1993 as a result of this cooperative effort. A novel aspect of the program has been the use of non-melting flesh parents for the purpose of improving handling characteristics. Selections include both yellow- and white-flesh types, peaches and nectarines. Some may be adapted for use in other production areas and are available for testing under non-propagation agreement. Evaluation summaries of selections and standards will be presented.

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Leigh G. Issell and Peter H. Jerie

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Leigh G. Issell and Peter H. Jerie