Benard Yada, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Arthur Villordon, Agnes Alajo and Robert O.M. Mwanga
A. Villordon, S. Gichuki, H. Kulembeka, S.C. Jeremiah and D. Labonte
One of the secondary centers of genetic diversity for the sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is located in Africa. We have developed a geo-referenced database of sweetpotato accessions for Tanzania and Kenya that is accessible by stakeholders and other users. Public domain base maps and other files were used to generate the underlying GIS components. DIVA-GIS was used to convert existing spreadsheet-based accession and passport data into GIS-compliant files. ALOV Map, a public domain Java application for publishing vector and raster maps, was used to provide the framework for a web-accessible GIS database. This demonstrates that the availability of publicly available software requiring minimal or flexible licensing costs provide a cost-effective alternative to institutions that are considering developing GIS databases as well as enabling web accessibility to such resources. DIVA-GIS was also used to predict potential distribution of sweetpotato germplasm in Sub-Saharan Africa using the built-in ecological niche modelling tool. We describe procedures, software, and other applications that we used to develop a publicly accessible web interface to a GIS database of sweetpotato germplasm collections in Kenya and Tanzania.
Richard M. Hannan
The Phaseolus collection is the largest collection maintained at WRPIS. It numbers 11,501 accessions with 1585 accessions pending PI assignment. Over 20% of the Phaseolus accessions must be handled in special ways because of unique pollination or day length requirements. In accordance with the stated mission of the project, evolution of the bean germplasm maintenance program has included the following innovations: 1. Expanded interaction with the international germplasm centers (i.e. CIAT) and national programs. 2. As a result of interactions with the Phaseolus CAC, the increase of this genus was moved to greenhouse production exclusively. 3. A program to clean up seedborne viruses in the Phaseolus collection was established. 4. For some of the wild species, it was necessary to establish suitable and reliable alternate regeneration sites. 5. In collaboration with the Bean Improvement Cooperative (BIC) Bean Genetics Committee, WRPIS assumed responsibility for the Genetic Stocks Collection. 6. Develop a core subset of the P. vulgaris collection based on passport data, plant characters and molecular markers.
Field resistance to scab was assessed within Indonesian sweetpotato germplasm, and some of the CIP pathogen tested clones were also included. The total number of clones was 778 from Indonesia and 57 from the CIP pathogen tested list. Many of the clones tested were highly resistant under Indonesian field conditions. It was relatively easy to select resistant clones in Bogor and Lembang, West Java, Indonesia where high humidity is prevalent throughout the year. The proportion of resistant vs. susceptible accessions varied according to the geographical area of origin. The reaction to scab and the place of origin in the passport data were linked and compared for their percentage in each reaction category (e.g., HR, R, MR, S, and HS). The results indicated that there were two types of geographical provenance in terms of resistance reaction. The first group, categorized by the lower percentage (<10%) of HR clones, included West Java, Central Java, East Java, Bali, and West Sumatra. The second group, which had >15% of HR clones, included North Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya. When putting HR and R clones together, the first group had <30%, and the second >50%. This may be due to selection pressure exerted on the crop during the evolutionary process. Two hypotheses could be considered to explain this grouping. One is that the first group originated in areas where there has not been much natural selection pressure by the scab disease. The second hypothesis is that the grouping was enhanced by cultural practices of farmers (e.g., avoidance of cultivation during the rainy season). There are indications that most of the sweetpotatoes grown in the first group of provinces was produced on a commercial scale, while most of the crop in the second group of provinces was produced by subsistence farmers.
María Ferriol, Belén Picó and Fernando Nuez
Cucurbita maxima Duch. is one of the most morphologically variable cultivated species. The Center for Conservation and Breeding of the Agricultural Diversity (COMAV) holds a diverse germplasm collection of the Cucurbita genus, with more than 300 landraces of this species. Morphological and molecular characterization are needed to facilitate farmer and breeder use of this collection. With this aim, the morphological variation of a collection of 120 C. maxima accessions was evaluated. The majority of these accessions originated from Spain, which has acted as a bridge since the 16th century for spreading squash morphotypes between the Americas and Europe. South American landraces (the center of origin of this species) were also included. Eight morphological types were established based on this characterization and previous intraspecific classifications. A subset of these accessions, selected from these classification and passport data, was employed for molecular characterization. Two marker types were used; sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), which preferentially amplifies open reading frames (ORF), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). In the main, SRAP marker analysis grouped accessions in accordance to their type of use (agronomic traits) and AFLP marker analysis grouped accessions as to their geographical origin. AFLP marker analysis detected a greater genetic variability among American than among Spanish accessions. This is likely due to a genetic bottleneck that may have occurred during the introduction of squash into Europe. The disparity of the results obtained with the two markers may be related to the different genome coverage which is characteristic of each particular marker type and/or to its efficiency in sampling variation in a population.
Barbara C. Hellier
collections are documented with complete passport data [latitude/longitude (including datum), habitat description, site directions, and accession description], herbarium voucher specimens, and images of the material collected and sites. The collected germplasm
Fuad Gasi, Kenan Kanlić, Belma Kalamujić Stroil, Naris Pojskić, Åsmund Asdal, Morten Rasmussen, Clive Kaiser and Mekjell Meland
probably rather high. Although passport data have been collected for most of the accessions, to efficiently manage the conserved apple germplasm in Norway, a more detailed and objective characterization is needed. DNA markers are much more efficient
Robert O.M. Mwanga, Benson Odongo, Charles Niringiye, Agnes Alajo, Putri E. Abidin, Regina Kapinga, Silver Tumwegamire, Berga Lemaga, James Nsumba and Edward E. Carey
.E. 2001 Sweetpotato germplasm collected in north-eastern Uganda in 1999: Passport data and morphological description International Potato Center (CIP), Sub-Saharan Africa Region. Liaison Office Uganda Accession No. 60927. CIP Code CIP.154
Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards
of the system include more than 20 active field evaluation sites, a base collection for long-term storage, quarantine, taxonomy, and plant exploration units. Critical information, including passport data and phenotypic characteristics about these
Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards
standards for passport data are intended to increase database-sharing among communities, basic inventory information is required. The Darwin Core fields include, but are not limited to, categories that provide institution codes and sample identification