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L. Nash, W. Fountain and M. Witt

In a unique partnership. the University of Kentucky Dept. of Horticulture, the Cooperative Extension Service, and the Kentucky State Division of Forestry are teaming up to produce two training packages for “train-the-trainer” workshops throughout the state. The workshops will be open to people interested in urban/community trees and arboriculture.

The first training session will be held in 1993 and will cover five modules: 1) Designing the planting site to compensate for a disturbed environment; 2) Species selection for the existing site; 3) Scientific planting techniques; 4) Post-planting care: and 5) Integrated pest management.

The second training session will be held in 1994 and will cover the following topics: 1) Establishing a scientific management program for the urban forest; 2) Preparation and administration of grants: 3) Fund-raising and efficient use of volunteers; 4) Developing an urban tree inventory; 5) Recognition of hazard trees; and 6) Selecting quality nursery stock.

The training packages will consist of a written manual, videos, and slide sets. Training sessions are open to foresters, county agents, city planners, developers, and others in Kentucky who are interested in returning to their communities and training others on the topics covered.

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Christine E. Coker, William Evans, Michael Collins and Walter Blankenship

The National Guard State Partnership Program seeks to link the National Guards of the United States with Ministries of Defense of emerging democratic nations in cooperative activities of mutual benefit. The Program aims to enhance those connections by bringing “Hometown America” onto the international stage through personal, sustained relationships. These associations could build a “Bridge to America,” establishing and nurturing bonds of mutual understanding at the grass roots level. The focus of the program has shifted rapidly to the “citizen” aspects of the National Guard, with instruction, orientation, and personnel exchanges in areas such as economic development, small business administration, and entrepreneurship. Mississippi's program partner is Bolivia. Mississippi State University was called upon to participate in the program by providing Subject Matter Experts. Scientists spent seven days in Bolivia working with the Bolivian military (made up of conscripted soldiers as young as 14 years of age), the Catholic University, and local villages, advising on greenhouse vegetable production and instructing program participants on cultural practices that would benefit their communities.

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Brent Pemberton, Michael Arnold, Tim Davis, Daniel Lineberger, Cynthia McKenney, David Rodriguez, Larry Stein, Charles Hall, Marco Palma and Richard De Los Santos

Texas Superstar ® is a marketing assistance program that involves the promotion of outstanding plants that have proven performance in most regions of Texas. From the beginning, this program has represented a partnership between the Texas A

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A.M. Shirazi and C.P. Dunn

The Expressway Partnership (a project of the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce's Gateway Green Committee) is an urban landscape project that promises to change the face of the city's expressways. The Morton Arboretum's Urban Horticulture Research Lab., with the support of ComEd (Excelon Corp.), since 2001 has been selecting, planting, and evaluating various cultivars of trees, shrubs, and ground covers in a search for the most suitable and sustainable plantings for the expressway environment. About 470 trees and shrubs were planted plus more than 10,000 groundcovers. In May 2002 these plants were visually evaluated and ranked from 1–5 with one being in excellent condition and 5 being dead. The control plants planted at Urban Horticulture Research Nursery at the Morton Arboretum had 100% survival. The survival rates for groundcovers were: Euonymusfortunei (Virginia Creeper) and Hemerocallis×daylily (day lily) had 80% to 90% survival rates, respectively. Pachysandra terminalis (Japanese spurge) plants died due to either de-icing salt sensitivity, or poor weed control. Syringa pekinensis (Peking lilac), as well as four Syringa cultivars, `President Grevy', `Summer Charm', `Charles Joly', and `James Mcfarlane', had a 100% survival rate. Survival rates for other plants were: Malus sargentii (Sargent crabapple) 93%; Robinapseudoacacia (black locust) ∼93%; Malus cultivars ∼75%; and Pinusbanksiana (jack pine) 75%. Cornussericea (red-osier dogwood) covered with 3 inches of mulch had a significantly better survival rate (90% to 100%) than the mulch treatment (60% to 80%). The growth and performance of other trees and shrubs will be also reported. This research will ensure sustainable and esthetic urban expressway plantings, while enhancing Chicago's stature as a significant urban landmark.

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Ellen T. Paparozzi and David P. Lambe

Universities continue to cut budgets and reduce faculty. Such cuts occurred at the Univ. of Nebraska in 1986-87. To ensure that floral design courses would continue to be taught, despite reduction in teaching appointments, an industry-university teaching partnership was proposed. While the teaching relationship started out as a team approach, it successfully evolved into a-strong partnership that permitted growth on the part of the industry instructor, and movement into a strictly supervisory role for the faculty partner. Thus, the overall goal of keeping floral design courses as an integral part of the floriculture curriculum was met without using extensive amounts of faculty time.

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Gary Y. Gao, James A. Chatfield, Erik A. Draper and Joseph F. Boggs

The Ohio State University (OSU) Extension Nursery, Landscape, and Turf Team (ENLTT) is an innovative and interdisciplinary team comprised of extension agents, extension specialists, researchers, teaching faculty, university arboretum staff, and research assistants. ENLTT has greatly improved the process of acquisition, delivery, and support of accurate, practical, and timely educational resources through interdisciplinary and industry partnerships. The award-winning weekly electronic newsletter Buckeye Yard and Garden Line (BYGL) has been the focal point of our teamwork since 1993. An ornamental research circular, authored and edited by ENLTT members, remains the most requested publication from the Section of Communication and Technology, Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center, OSU. Strong partnership with the green industry in Ohio has resulted in the financial commitment of more than $230,000 from the Ohio Nursery and Landscape Association since 1993. ENLTT members have improved themselves as a result of educating each other through weekly BYGL conference calls from April to October, taking study tours, and conducting joint educational programs. Twenty-two commodity or issue teams, such as, Floriculture Team, Vegetable Crops Team, Tree Fruit Team, Forestry Team, Agronomic Crops Team, Sustainable Agriculture Team, and Dairy Team, have been formed in OSU Extension due to the success of ENLTT.

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Kathleen Delate* and Jerald DeWitt

Based on citizen demand, Iowa State Univ. (ISU) established the first organic specialist faculty position at a U.S. Land Grant Univ. in 1997, as a shared appointment in the departments of horticulture and agronomy, with a 70% Extension and 30% Research split. A series of Organic Agriculture Focus Groups was convened in 1998 to help direct the new organic research and Extension program at ISU. Partnerships with the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture and the College of Agriculture facilitated the ISU sustainable agriculture Extension leader and organic specialist's participation in an extensive focus group dialogue with a diverse group of farmers (organic and conventional), agribusiness professionals, bankers and consumers in six agricultural communities across Iowa. Paramount in the needs assessment was the establishment of organic research sites, both on-farm and at research stations across the state, to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits associated with organic farming practices over the long term. Specific outcomes-based Extension needs were articulated, which led to the development of an annual schedule of organic workshops, field days and conferences. In 2001, in a survey of 300 farmers, 90% of respondents reported an increase in soil quality and 67% reported a 6 to 30% increase in farm income as a result of organic farming practices. The success of Land Grant Univ. organic programs will be dependent upon administrative support, sufficient resources, and community involvement in the decision-making process.

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Joseph Sanders

Agricultural biotechnology, in such areas as seed enhancement, is making significant progress in overcoming a variety of conceptual and practical problems. As a result, the near-term potential is tremendous for improving agricultural productivity and efficiency on marginal lands, for decreasing reliance on synthetic chemicals, and for enhancing environmental acceptability. However, a number of major challenges lie ahead, at least three of which require the development of a strategic plan, if the seed industry is to remain viable. The emergence of resistant viral strains and more aggressive insects, as well as herbicide-resistant weeds, requires access to a greater diversity of genetic resources. Then: too, with governmental oversight, there must be a credible, sound review process that is flexible and assures safety while facilitating technology development, transfer, and use. Third, the public must develop a far better understanding of the applications of biotechnology and the actual risks they may pose. This can be accomplished through a process that recognizes the tremendous potential benefits biotechnology offers, while also eliminating irrational fears, mistrust of recombinant DNA, and ill-founded aversion to genetically engineered products. The purpose of this paper is to address these challenges concerning seed enhancement by proposing and outlining a partnership strategy supportive of school-based community seedbank programs. Also explored in this presentation, because they can ensure the success of such initiatives, are the reciprocal, conceptual changes that society appears to require of the seed enhancement industry and, more generally, agricultural biotechnology. In such respects, the emphasis is on the conservation of plant genetic resources. This includes the germplasm of crop plants, their wild relatives, and other plant species possibly contributing important genetic characteristics and scientific understanding of their oligogenic nature.

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N.K. Lownds

Bring together a university landscape horticulture professor who believes in school gardens, a landscape design class, a landscape construction class, enthusiastic elementary school teachers and a willing principal, and you can create wonderful teaching gardens. The interactions among university students, elementary teachers, and students were a true learning experience for everyone. University students were involved in a true problem-solving project, being forced to look at problems and solutions through the eyes of elementary school children. Their expertise was valued as they were asked to explain horticulture to first and second graders. For some, this was the first time they really understood some of the concepts. Teachers and students were active participants throughout the process. Sharing thoughts and ideas was dynamic throughout the design and construction. Ways to initiate and maintain university–school partnerships will be presented.

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Ted Whitwell, John Kelly and William B. Miller

In 1993, Carolina Nurseries and the Department of Horticulture at Clemson Univ. entered into a partnership to create a research and development program to solve short and long term nursery production problems. Research is conducted on site at Carolina Nurseries in a specially designed 0.6-ha area built by the nursery. Faculty from the Depts. of Horticulture, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Plant Pathology and Entomology have worked with graduate and undergraduate students located on site. The nursery staff is involved in overall planning and stay current with results so that research can be immediately implemented on the nursery. Yearly funding for the graduate student is provided by the nursery and grant funds are obtained from various companies for labor and supplies. Carolina Nurseries has committed to funding research to improve their production and also sharing the results with the rest of the nursery industry. Research findings are presented in peered reviewed articles, conference proceedings, abstracts, and oral presentations. Outstanding training opportunities for students and staff are available to also improve career development for future nursery managers. Faculty interaction with companies and the nursery industry are enhanced.