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James E. Altland, James C. Locke, and Charles R. Krause

). Furthermore, the CEC values provided by Daniels and Wright (1988) are the weighted sums of CEC for several pine bark particle size fractions, which may provide inaccurate estimates of composite CEC since nesting and settling of particles was not taken into

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Jinsheng Huang, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo

reaction, the particle size distribution of a liming material directly influences the dissolution rate and its effectiveness in neutralizing soil acidity. A particle size efficiency (PSE) factor can be assigned to each particle size fraction of an

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Magdalena Pancerz and James E. Altland

bark samples were transported back to Wooster, OH, in 117-L plastic containers and stored in a cooler at 4 °C until analyzed. Table 1. Percent particle size distribution of sphagnum peatmoss and three pine bark ( Pinus taeda ) products screened

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Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Jamal Y. Ayad, and Yahia A. Othman

( Deepagoda et al., 2013 ). Physical properties of substrate, such as particle size, are a key factor of growing medium selection ( Bohne and Wrede, 2005 ). Growing bolboschoenus ( Bolboschoenus planiculmis ) seedlings in homogeneous-sized quartz particles

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George Gizas and Dimitrios Savvas

). Given that the commonly used substrates are either natural or industrially processed materials originating from natural resources, the size of their particles may vary within a wide range. Therefore, the particle size of a particular substrate is

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Michael C. Barnes

( Saunders et al., 2006 ). To achieve this, PTS is hammer-milled for a longer period of time to further reduce the particle size. The longer processing requires additional time, energy, and labor thereby increasing the cost of PTS production. Incorporation of

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Michael C. Barnes

not considered to be a PTS because it does not contain an appreciable percentage of wood. It has been shown that pine wood chips that are hammermilled into a PTS with a particle size range and physical properties comparable to aged PB and peat

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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Dan M. Sullivan, Donald A. Horneck, and James Cassidy

been done with peatmoss or pine bark. Milled pine bark needs a range of both fine and coarse particle sizes to be suitable as a container substrate; as a general rule, 70% to 80% of the particles should be within a range of 0.6 to 9.5 mm in diameter and

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James E. Altland, James S. Owen Jr., Brian E. Jackson, and Jeb S. Fields

following procedures described in Fonteno and Harden (2010) . In addition, particle size distribution of 100 g oven-dried samples were determined for three replicates of each substrate by passing the substrate through seven sieves (6.30-, 2.00-, 0.71-, 0

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William R. Argo

Acceptable physical properties are an integral part of root-media quality. However, there is no one growing medium that works best in all situations because root-media physical properties are not constant, but rather can be affected by the grower. Understanding the root environment under production conditions requires an understanding of the dynamic nature of air : water : solid ratio in the medium. The objective of this review is to consider key aspects of root-medium physical properties, which include bulk density and particle size, container capacity, media settling, water absorption, rewettability, moisture release characteristics, and water loss due to evaporation from the root-medium surface.