tryoni , Biosteres oophilus , B. vandenboschi , and B. longicaudata )] ( Beardsley, 1961 ; Wharton and Marsh, 1978 ). An attempt was made in Hawaii to establish permanent biological control with the introduction of pteromalid parasitoids ( Spalangia
Jean Pierre Kapongo, P.G. Kevan, and J.H. Giliomee
R.W. McMahon, R.K. Lindquist, B.D. Baith, T.L. Makin, and M.L. Casey
A 2-year demonstration study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two sources of Encarsia formosa (EF) on the biological control of the sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) on poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild.). Commercially produced EF were raised on the greenhouse whitefly (GHWF) (Trialuerodes vaporariorum Westwood), while the locally produced EF were raised on the SPWF. Results showed that SPWF populations were reduced considerably both years, and maximum nymph parasitism ranged from 60% to >80%. No large differences were observed in the ability of EF to control SPWF populations whether raised on SPWF or GHWF nymphs. This study suggests that there is potential for controlling SPWF populations on poinsettia by EF in conjunction with an integrated pest management (IPM) program.
Michele R. Warmund
developing larvae as well as various parasitoids ( Cooper and Rieske, 2011 ; Otake, 1980 , 1989 ). In the fall, chestnut galls senesce and branch tips with galls die. Because of this dieback, floral primordia in these terminal branches do not produce
Brian K. Hogendorp and Raymond A. Cloyd
effects of MilStop ® on the parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii, and the predatory coccinellid beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri . Expt. 4 was performed to assess the indirect effects of MilStop ® on L. dactylopii . Expt. 2: Direct effects of
Brent Rowell, Nittayaporn Bunsong, Kosin Satthaporn, Sompian Phithamma, and Charnnarong Doungsa-ard
Larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) and other crucifer pests cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Overuse of pesticides is a serious problem in most vegetable growing areas of the country. Six species of parasitoids were reared from DBM larvae and pupae collected in northern Thailand in 1989–90 and 2003–04. The larval parasitoid Cotesiaplutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae) appears to be the most important parasitoid of DBM in Thailand; other native or naturalized parasitoids may play supplementary roles. These natural enemies can and should be conserved in well thought out, participatory IPM programs. Field experiments comparing local farmer practice (weekly sprays of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides) to a simple IPM protocol using Bt and neem demonstrated superior control and higher yields of undamaged cabbage from the IPM treatment. This information on DBM parasitoids and other natural enemies of crucifer pests has been developed into a poster and other extension materials currently used in national “training of trainer” (for vegetable IPM) programs throughout Thailand. Farmer-centered IPM programs focused on conservation of local DBM parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers.
M. Marutani, L. Yudin, D. Nafus, F. Cruz, and V. Santos
The outbreak of a new whitefly was first reported in Summer 1993 at two sites in the southern part of Guam. Vegetable crops heavily damaged by this pest included cucumber, yardlong beans, and tomato. At present, the whitefly is found infesting tomato, eggplants, cucumbers, watermelon, and other vegetable crops throughout the island. The whitefly was identified as Bemisia argentifolii with the characteristics of a wide host range and the presence of silvering leaves on cucurbits. A larval parasitoid was recovered from eggplant and tomato leaves. The efficacy of pesticides against the pest is being investigated.
Chang-chi Chu*, Kai Umeda, Tian-Ye Chen, Alvin M. Simmons, and Thomas H. Henneberry
Insect traps are vital component of many entomological programs for detection and monitoring of insect populations. We equipped yellow (YC), blue (BC) sticky card (BC) with 530 nm lime green (LED-YC) and 470 nm blue (LED-BC) light-emitting diodes, respectively that increased trap catches of several insect pests. The LED-YC traps caught 1.3, 1.4, 1.8, and 4.8 times more adult greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, cotton aphids Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fungus gnats Bradysia coprophila (Lintner), respectively, compared with standard YC traps. The LED-YC traps did not catch more Eretmocerus spp. than the standard YC traps. Eretmocerus spp. are important B. tabaci parasitoids used in greenhouse biological control programs. For whitefly control in greenhouse the 530 nm lime green LED equipped plastic cup trap designed by Chu et al. (2003) is the better choice than LED-YC trap because it catches few Eretmocerus spp. and Encarsia spp. whitefly parasitoids released for B. tabaci nymph control. The LED-BC traps caught 2.0-2.5 times more adult western flower thrips Franklinella occidentalis (Pergande) compared with the standard BC traps.
Juan A. Villanueva-Jiménez and Marjorie A. Hoy
Florida citrus nursery growers were surveyed to learn about their citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) (CLM) management practices as a preliminary step in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program. All responses were kept anonymous. Survey responses from growers producing ≈4.2 million trees annually were obtained, which represents most of the estimated 5.2 million trees required to annually replant Florida groves. Large nurseries (20%) each produced ≥100,000 trees per year and jointly provided 88% of the trees produced annually. Small nurseries (80%) each produced <100,000 trees per year. The citrus leafminer was ranked the most important pest in nurseries during 1995. Pesticides used for CLM control included avermectin, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, diflubenzuron, and sulfur, in order of importance. Oil and soap also were used. Growers were concerned about the possibility that the CLM will develop resistance to pesticides. Producers potentially were willing to monitor CLM populations, switch pesticide types to improve survival of parasitoids of the CLM, and leave untreated trees inside the nursery to serve as refuges for CLM parasitoids. In order of importance, pest management advice was provided by private chemical companies, the Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide produced by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS), UF/IFAS personnel, grower magazines, private consultants, the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association, and other growers.
J. Mo and K. Philpot
Four large-scale field trials were carried out in 2001 and 2002 in lemon orchards in south-western New South Wales to assess the suitability of imidacloprid as a replacement for endosulfan in controlling the spined citrus bug (SCB), Biprorulus bibax Breddin (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The results showed that imidacloprid was at least as effective as endosulfan in controlling SCB, even when it was applied at a rate corresponding to half of its discriminate dose (100% kill). The application of imidacloprid did not reduce numbers of wasps and spiders foraging in tree canopies. However, imidacloprid was more toxic than endosulfan to parasitoids of the red scale and to lacewings. These negative effects can be minimised by timing the sprays in winter, when SCB adults congregate in neighbouring orange trees and the numbers of natural enemies of citrus pests are generally low.
Simon Lachance and Conrad Cloutier
Predators and parasitoids used for biological control must possess good dispersal potential in order to ensure spatially uniform and cost-effective control. The rate of dispersal of Perillus bioculatus (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a predator of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), was measured following central release in 0.025-ha potato plots. Factors influencing predator dispersal were also studied under controlled conditions in plant growth chambers. Temperature, predator size as affected by instar, and physiological age with respect to the completion of feeding during the intermolt stage were found to be significant factors. Predator density was also evaluated because of the strong tendency for this species to aggregate, thereby influencing dispersal. Results can be used to develop predictive models for inundative releases of P. bioculatus.